CONSTABLE: THE MAKING OF A MASTER │ Victoria & Albert Museum, London → 11 January 2015

“Ɖs mêjr xibišn rı̣sesz Jon Cunsṭbl’z inflụnsz, tecnīcs n leġsi t ofr a ny intrpṛtešn v Britn’z bst-luvd ātist. Dscuvr hâ grt wrcs v āt r crietd az Cunsṭbl’z most fems mastrpìsz r ynîtd wɖ hiz revlušnri ýlscečz: xpresv evcešnz v land, sì n scî ɖt alaud hm t trnsfŕ ɖ frešṇs v ɖ âtdorz intu hiz xibišnpêntñz.

Fr ɖ frst tîm, Cunsṭbl z prizntd alñsd ɖ old mastrz v clasicl landscep huz fwml valyz h stydı̣sli asimiletd. Bî cmbînñ ɖ oʈoṛti v ɖer comṗzišnl îdiyz wɖ a breʈtecñli načṛlistc vižn ɖt wz intîrli hiz ôn, Cunsṭbl wd ultiṃtli trnsfwm ɖ žãra v landscep̓êntñ, n in ɖ prôses šêp ɖ indyrñ popylr imij v ɖ Ñgliš cuntrīsîd.

Lrnñ fṛm ɖ Old Mastrz

Jon Cunsṭbl frst lrnd t pênt n drw az a jentlmnli psyt. In 1795, h met ɖ aṃṭrātist n c̣lctr Sr Jwj Bômont. It pruvd a trnñpýnt. Bômont’s c̣lẋn gev Cunsṭbl axes t mêjr pêntñz bî ɖ Old Mastrz.

Cunsṭbl’z ŕly wrcs rvil ɖ inflụns v svṛl grt pêntrz: Rafel, Rūbnz n Clwd Lren. Hiz cntmprri Jon Cranč ṣplîd hm wɖ a list v Pêntr’z Rīdñ, ẇč pṛvîdd a grândñ in ɖ histri n ʈiyri v āt. Jon Toms Antiqti Smiʈ lent hm drōñz n prints. Wɖ ɖ incurijmnt v ɖz frendz, Cunsṭbl entrd ɖ Royl Acaḍmi Scūlz in Lundn in 1799 t imbāc on a c̣rir az a pêntr.

Rīsnt Britiš landscepātists sč az Toms Gênzbra, Ričd Wilsn n Toms Grtin incurijd hm t istabliš a daylog btwn ɖ Old Mastrz n clôs studi v ɖ načṛl wrld. No longr cntnt wɖ sīcñ ɖ truʈ at secnd hand, h md lbwrı̣s studiz fṛm nêčr jrñ scečñturz v ɖ Lêcdistrict n elsẇr.

Scečñ in ɖ ôpn er

Scečñ in ýlz spred ʈrt Yṛp jrñ ɖ 17ʈ n 18ʈ senčriz. Clwd Lren wz sd t hv pêntd ât v dorz, n svṛl handbcs fr stydnts v āt rec̣mendd ôṗner scečñ in ýlz. Toms Jônz md impresv ýlscečz in Wêlz n Iṭli in 1772–82, n J.M.W. Trnr, Wiłm Mulredi n Jon Linl ol pêntd vivid âtdor scečz.

Ẇn wrcñ âtdorz, Cunsṭbl pêntd on fragmnts v canvs, milbwd or hom-md pêpr. Az h xplend t a frend in 1825, hiz ýlscečz wr dn in ɖ lid v mî box on mî nīz az yžl.

Cunsṭbl trnsfwmd ɖ žãra v ýlscečñ fṛm wn yzd fr rcwdñ landscepṃtīfs t a mīnz v capčrñ tranzı̣nt ifcts v lît n wɖr. Ẇn hiz dwtr Iẓbel gev ɖ ýlscečz rmenñ wɖ ɖ famli t ɖ Sâʈ Cenzñtn Myziym (nâ ɖ VnA) in 1888, ɖe wr aptli dscrîbd bî a rvywr in Ɖ Standd az briłnt trnscripšnz v ɖ ʈñ v ɖ mmnt – nêčr cōt in ɖ vri act.

Fṛm studiz fṛm nêčr t xibišnpêntñz

Cunsṭbl’s letrz mnšn bʈ scečz n studiz in ýlz. Ɖz aproxiṃt caṭgriz cn b subdivîdd intu dstnct tîps. Ɖe includ studiz fṛm nêčr v a mtīf (sč az a pwšn v landscep) or v verı̣s ifcts v lît, šêd or wɖr. Sm scečz wr md in ɖ stydio az a frst draft fr a comṗzišn. Ynīcli, Cunsṭbl olso md fl-sîz stydioscečz in preṗrešn fr an xibišnpêntñ. A studi md drectli fṛm nêčr cd smtmz b rvîzd lêtr in ɖ stydio. Pṛvîdd wɖ a sfišnt levl v finiš, it mt b jujd sūṭbl fr xibišn n seil. Cunsṭbl pṛdyst a nmbr v sč pêntñz, yžli on ɖ modist scêl v a cabiṇtpicčr. Sm wr md wɖ ɖ gîdns v drōñz, uɖrz x̣ktd intîrli in ɖ ôṗner.

C̣lctñ prints

Ɖ ātist’s frend n bîogṛfr Č.R. Lezli rcwld ɖt Cunsṭbl dîd az h livd, srândd bî āt, fr ɖ wōlz v ɖ ltl atic [bedrūm] wr cuvrd wɖ ingrevñz. Aftr h dîd in 1837, ɖ pêntñz in hiz stydio n hiz ôn ātc̣lẋn wr sold at ōẋn. Ʈrt hiz lîf Cunsṭbl c̣lctd prints, ẇč wr ls xpnsv n ɖrfr v sūpirı̣r qaḷti t ɖ rɖr mînr pêntñz h cd afwd. H wz ebl t asmbl a cnsidṛbl ātc̣lẋn. It includd 59 ýlpêntñz bî Old n Modn Mastrz n ovr 5000 prints, 250 drōñz, 37 bcs v prints n 39 fremd prints n drōñz. Most wr landscep n žãra subjcts, similr t ɖoz ẇč h hmslf pêntd.

Prints bî or bêst on fevrit ātists sč az Rūbnz, Clwd, Rîzdāl n Tišn srvd Cunsṭbl az mtirı̣l fr copiyñ, pṛvîdñ rič swsz v inspirešn n tīčñêdz.

Mcñ copiz v uɖr ātists

Nîn copiz bî Mr. Cunsṭbl – ol aftr 17ʈ senčri landsceps bî Rîzdāl, Clwd, Rūbnz n Žac d’Āʈwa – wr includd in ɖ postyṃs seil v hiz wrcs in 1838. Copiyñ Old Mastrz tṛdišnli helpt yuñ ātists dveḷp ɖer tecnīc n pârz v invnšn. It olso fed ɖ wîdspred dmand fr replic̣s v seḷbretd wrcs. Cunsṭbl’z nîn copiz sold wel, most riylîzñ hîr sumz ɖn ɖ Old n Modn Mastrz h ônd, or hiz ôn scečz n studiz.

Cunsṭbl hd axes t Sr Jwj Bômont’s čýs c̣lẋn v picčrz, n wz lêtr ebl t copi Old Mastrz on dsple at ɖ Britiš Instityšn n Royl Acaḍmi Pêntñscūl. Ɖ span v hiz ātistc lîf wz bândd bî hiz copiz v tu utrli cnonicl wrcs: ɖ Rafel taṗstrīcātūnz, ẇč h copid in 1795 fṛm Nicḷs Ḍrigni’z ingrevñz, n Tišn’z ōltrpìs Ɖ Deʈ v St. Pītr Mātr, ẇč Cunsṭbl hêld in 1836 az ɖ fândešn v ol ɖ stîlz v landscep in evri scūl v Yṛp.

Twdz načṛl pêntñ

Cunsṭbl advîzd ātists t mnten a clôs n cntiňl obzrvns v nêčr, bt trnzletñ fêʈfl obẓvešn intu a finišt comṗzišn wz an ongowñ čalinj. Mni v Cunsṭbl’z xibišnpêntñz wr ɖ rzult v a complx prôses v dveḷpmnt, smtmz spanñ a nmbr v yirz. Ɖe wr cmpozd fṛm a wîd renj v ýlscečz, grafîtdrōñz, wōtrculr studiz n ŕlı̣r pêntñz.

Folowñ hiz marij in Octobr 1816, n fêst wɖ ɖ fnanšl prešrz v a growñ famli, ɖ cmršl sxes v hiz pêntñz bcem incrisñli impwtnt. Fr Cunsṭbl’s six lj sìnz v ɖ Rivr Stâr, includñ Ɖ Hêwên (1821) n Ɖ Līpñ Hws (1825), h adoptd ɖ pênz-tcñ prôses v mcñ fl-sîz pripaṛtri ýlscečz. Ɖe helpt hm t coōdinet mtīfs n baḷns culr, lît n šêd, solvñ comṗzišnl probḷmz ẇl rtenñ ɖ frešṇs v hiz smlr drōñz n ýlscečz. Ɖz six-ft canvsz wr sm v Cunsṭbl’s grtst sxesz ẇn xibitd at ɖ Royl Acaḍmi btwn 1819 n 1825.

Trnscripšn, imitešn n emylešn

Sr Jošua Reṇldz hd incurijd stydnts at ɖ Royl Acaḍmi, ẇn copiyñ, t cnsidr ɖmslvz in comṗtišn wɖ ɖer istimd prīdisesrz. Bî ɖ ŕli 19ʈ senčri, oṗtyṇtiz fr Britiš ātists t studi mêjr pêntñz bî ɖ Old Mastrz incrist wɖ ɖ growñ popylaṛti v ātxibišnz n ɖ fândñ v public picčrgaḷriz.

Aftr hiz deʈ, Cunsṭbl wz cnsidrd az hôli imansipetd fṛm ɖ scūlz v Duč, Frenč, or Itałn āt. In hiz ôn tîm, hvr, ātcritcs hd fevṛbli lîcnd hiz picčrz t ɖoz v 17ʈ senčri mastrz sč az Hôḅmā, Rūbnz, Rîzdāl n Vârmn.

Ɖo lêtr ovr-lct, sč cmparisnz wr wel fândd. Ẇɖr yzñ ɖ mtīf v a cāt crosñ a fōd (a comn subjct in 17ʈ senčri Duč n Flemiš picčrz), vîbṛnt brušwrc sjstv v Rnesns Vnīšn ātists, or cnfiğrešnz lrnd fṛm Frenč pêntrz v clasicl landscep, Cunsṭbl cntinyd t refṛns ɖ Old Mastrz ʈrt hiz c̣rir.

A leġsi in print

Cunsṭbl ň ɖ impwtns v ingrevñz in pṛmotñ ɖ fem v pêntrz. H olso hôpt ɖt publišñ rīpṛduẋnz v hiz wrc wd b profiṭbl. In 1824, ɖ ingrevr Samyl Wiłm Reṇldz pṛpozd t mc a print, at hiz ôn xpns, v Cunsṭbl’z Ɖ Loc, ẇč hd bn wel rsivd at ɖ Royl Acaḍmi. Ɖ venčr fêld n rlešnz btwn ɖ tu men sârd. Fîv yirz lêtr Cunsṭbl ingejd Dêvid Lūc̣s t pṛdys prints v hiz picčrz. Metsotintingrevñ wz čozn az ɖ tecnīc bst ebl t capčr ɖ ifcts v lît n šêd, or čiaṛskro, so caṛctristc v Cunsṭbl’z pêntñz. T dsple hiz fl crietv renj, h ṣlctd sml ýlscečz n ljr xibišnpicčrz, az wel az pêntñ ny subjcts.

Ɖ frst grūp v prints wz publišt az Ñgliš Landscepsìṇri in 1830. Xplaṇtri txts wr lêtr ritn t acumṗni indivijl plêts, bt ɖ projct hd ltl cmršl sxes.”

 

GAḶRI WEBSAIT


BBC – YR PÊNTÑZ


 


ẆT Đ PÊPRZ SE

Māc Admz n Ana Dbeṇdeti, Đ APOLO MAĠZĪN, 15 Septmbr 2014
Êdrịn Srl, Đ GĀDỊN, 15 Septmbr 2014
Māc Hudsn, Đ TEḶGRAF, 16 Septmbr 2014
Mātin Cūmr, TÎM ÂT, 16 Septmbr 2014
Māc Lwsn, Đ NY STÊTSMN, 18 Septmbr 2014
Jaci Vŭlšlāgr, Đ FNANŠL TÎMZ, 19 Septmbr 2014
Victwria Sadlr, Đ HUFÑTN PÔST, 19 Septmbr 2014

One thought on “CONSTABLE: THE MAKING OF A MASTER │ Victoria & Albert Museum, London → 11 January 2015

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