Consonants

UNACCENTED ACCENTED OMITTED

IPA symbols in green

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1. UNACCENTED CONSONANTS

1.1. The unaccented consonants B, D, F, J, M, P, S, T, V and Z solely represent the sounds they represent – or primarily represent – in traditional spelling (TS). Thus B represents /b/ etc. Compare num (numb).

1.2. C and G are always hard. Thus cat, but fes (face), and gem (game), but ej (age).

1.3. W and Y, as consonants, represent the same sounds as in TS (but they also represent vowel sounds and act as transition markers).

1.4. L and the consonant letter R are always “clear” or “dark”, as in TS. Thus lêt (late) and fel (fail) respectively, and rît (right) and far respectively.

1.5. H represents /h/ as in hat, except at the end of the word or before a final S, when it represents /x/, eg. loh (loch) and lohs (lochs).

1.6. Q represents /kw/, eg. qīn (queen), i.e. without being followed by U.

1.7. X, initially, represents /ks/ or /gz/, and a preceding /e/ or /ɪ/ is understood, eg. xit (exit) and xibit (exhibit). Medially and finally it represents /ks/, eg. mixt (mixed) and mix respectively). After another consonant letter, a following /e/ is understood, eg. txt (text) and sx (sex). (In the case of plurals or the 3rd person singular, these sounds are represented by CS or GZ, eg. pacs (packs) and egz (eggs) respectively.)

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2. ACCENTED CONSONANTS

Accented consonant letters have the following values:

Ć = //, eg. ćrć (church)

Đ = /ð/, eg. weɖr (weather)

Ğ = /gj/, eg. reğlr – the following /ʊ/ is understood

= /gw/, eg. lanḡj (language) – the following /ɪ/ is understood

Ł = /lj/, eg. miłn (million)

= /mj/, with a following /u:/ understood, eg. ḿt (mute), aḿz (amuse)

Ń = /nj/, with a following /u:/ understood in initial positions, eg. ńt (newt), and a following /ə/ understood in medial, eg. uńn (onion)

Ñ = /ŋ/, eg. ñc (ink), Ñgḷnd (England) and sññ (singing) – where the preceding /ɪ/ sounds are understood – and sañ (sang)*

Ś = /ʃ/, eg. śīp (sheep)

Ʈ = /θ/, eg. ʈanc (thank)

= //, eg. fix́n (fiction) and sx́n (section) – the preceding /e/ is understood

= /hw/, eg. ẃît (white)

Ź = /ʒeɪ/, eg. meźr (measure)

* /ŋ/ is also represented in the following ways:

  • incum (income), ingej (engage), in the case of the prefix.
  • ʈnc (think), sngl (single) – where the preceding /ɪ/ is understood before /ŋk/ or /ŋg/ – but linc (link), drinc (drink), when the /ɪ/ is preceded by /l/ or /r/ respectively.

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3. OMISSION OF CONSONANT LETTERS

Consonant sounds are understood, without being shown, in the case of:

  • /k/ between Ñ and T, eg. xtñt (extinct)
  • /p/ between M and T, eg. emti (empty)
  • /t/ between C and L, eg. c̣recli (correctly)

INTRODUCTION EXAMPLES ALPHABET VOWELS PREFIXES SUFFIXES SHORT FORMS VERBAL CONTRACTIONS COMPOUND WORDS HOMOGRAPHS HOMOPHONES