IPA symbols in green



1.1. The unaccented consonants B, D, F, J, M, P, S, T, V and Z solely represent the sounds they represent – or primarily represent – in traditional spelling (TS). Thus B represents /b/ etc. Compare num (numb).

1.2. C and G are always hard. Thus cat, but fes (face), and gem (game), but ej (age).

1.3. W and Y, as consonants, represent the same sounds as in TS (but they also represent vowel sounds and act as transition markers).

1.4. L and the consonant letter R are always “clear” or “dark”, as in TS. Thus lêt (late) and fel (fail) respectively, and rît (right) and far respectively.

1.5. H represents /h/ as in hat, except at the end of the word or before a final S, when it represents /x/, eg. loh (loch) and lohs (lochs).

1.6. Q represents /kw/, eg. qīn (queen), i.e. without being followed by U.

1.7. X, initially, represents /ks/ or /gz/, and a preceding /e/ or /ɪ/ is understood, eg. xit (exit) and xibit (exhibit). Medially and finally it represents /ks/, eg. mixt (mixed) and mix respectively). After another consonant letter, a following /e/ is understood, eg. txt (text) and sx (sex). (In the case of plurals or the 3rd person singular, these sounds are represented by CS or GZ, eg. pacs (packs) and egz (eggs) respectively.)



Accented consonant letters have the following values:

Ć = //, eg. ćrć (church)

Đ = /ð/, eg. weɖr (weather)

Ğ = /gj/, eg. reğlr – the following /ʊ/ is understood

= /gw/, eg. lanḡj (language) – the following /ɪ/ is understood

Ł = /lj/, eg. miłn (million)

= /mj/, with a following /u:/ understood, eg. ḿt (mute), aḿz (amuse)

Ń = /nj/, with a following /u:/ understood in initial positions, eg. ńt (newt), and a following /ə/ understood in medial, eg. uńn (onion)

Ñ = /ŋ/, eg. ñc (ink), Ñgḷnd (England) and sññ (singing) – where the preceding /ɪ/ sounds are understood – and sañ (sang)*

Ś = /ʃ/, eg. śīp (sheep)

Ʈ = /θ/, eg. ʈanc (thank)

= //, eg. fix́n (fiction) and sx́n (section) – the preceding /e/ is understood

= /hw/, eg. ẃît (white)

Ź = /ʒeɪ/, eg. meźr (measure)

* /ŋ/ is also represented in the following ways:

  • incum (income), ingej (engage), in the case of the prefix.
  • ʈnc (think), sngl (single) – where the preceding /ɪ/ is understood before /ŋk/ or /ŋg/ – but linc (link), drinc (drink), when the /ɪ/ is preceded by /l/ or /r/ respectively.



Consonant sounds are understood, without being shown, in the case of:

  • /k/ between Ñ and T, eg. xtñt (extinct)
  • /p/ between M and T, eg. emti (empty)
  • /t/ between C and L, eg. c̣recli (correctly)