Tag Archives: Brazil

Frank Poems: HAPPINESS

The Tom Maior samba school. Photograph: Nelson Almeida/AFP/Getty Images. The Guardian, 12 February 2018: "Spirit of samba: the best of Rio and Sao Paulo carnivals in pictures"

Sadness is endless…
Happiness ends

Like a feather
Floating on thin air,
And dying
When the wind’s not there.

Carnival illusion,
Happiness of the poor
Who work all year
For a fleeting dream
Of fancy dress
As pirate king or flower queen,
Ending on Wednesday.

Sadness is endless…
Happiness ends

Like a drop of petal dew
Which glistens when
It feels the oscillation of the stem
Before, love’s tear,
It falls on cue.

Happiness is such a sweet
And delicate thing.
Flowers and kisses,
Humming-bird wings,
An airy aquarelle
In blue, yellow and green.
Happiness being all the above,
I always treat her well.

Sadness is endless…
Happiness ends.

My happiness is dreaming
In my darling’s eyes
Like the dawn that’s gleaming
Beneath the deep-black sky.

A kiss to make
My love awake
To happiness today.


Tristeza não tem fim
Felicidade sim

A felicidade é como a pluma
Que o vento vai levando pelo ar
Voa tão leve
Mas tem a vida breve
Precisa que haja vento sem parar

A felicidade do pobre parece
A grande ilusão do carnaval
A gente trabalha o ano inteiro
Por um momento de sonho
Pra fazer a fantasia
De rei ou de pirata ou jardineira
Pra tudo se acabar na quarta-feira

Tristeza não tem fim
Felicidade sim

A felicidade é como a gota
De orvalho numa pétala de flor
Brilha tranqüila
Depois de leve oscila
E cai como uma lágrima de amor

A felicidade é uma coisa boa
E tão delicada também
Tem flores e amores
De todas as cores
Tem ninhos de passarinhos
Tudo de bom ela tem
E é por ela ser assim tão delicada
Que eu trato dela sempre muito bem

Tristeza não tem fim
Felicidade sim

A minha felicidade está sonhando
Nos olhos da minha namorada
É como esta noite, passando, passando
Em busca da madrugada
Falem baixo, por favor
Pra que ela acorde alegre com o dia
Oferecendo beijos de amor

From Portuguese: EVOLUTION by Machado de Assis

(My translation of the short story Evolução by Machado de Assis, which was first published in the collection Reliquias de Casa Velha in 1906)

My name is Inácio; his, Benedito. I won’t tell you our surnames, for a reason that any discrete person would understand. You’ll have to be content with Inácio and Benedito. It’s better than nothing and is in line with Juliet’s philosophy: “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other name would smell as sweet.” But let’s turn to Benedito’s smell.

And it’s immediately apparent that he was the least Romeo-like of any man in this world. He was forty-five when I got to know him; I won’t say when that was because everything in this story has to be oblique and mysterious. So, forty-five, and lots of black hair. For the hair that wasn’t black, he used a chemical process that was so efficient that you couldn’t tell the natural from the fake – except when he got out of bed; but no one saw him when he got out of bed. Everything else was natural: legs, arms, head, eyes, clothes, shoes, watch chain, and cane. Even the diamond pin he wore on his tie – one of the most beautiful I’ve ever seen – was natural and legitimate; it has cost him quite a bit; I saw him buying it in the jeweller’s shop; I don’t remember the name of the shop, but it was in the Rua do Ouvidor.

A fine character. No-one’s character changes, and Benedito’s was good – or, more precisely, peaceable. But he was less original when it came to intellect. We could compare him to a busy guesthouse where all sorts of ideas can be heard when the guests are sitting at the table with the owner’s family. At times, two of the guests might be antipathetic to each other, if not outright inimical; but the owner ensured it would never come to blows; he demanded reciprocal tolerance. That’s how Benedito managed to reconcile his vague sort of atheism with founding two religious confraternities – I can’t remember whether they were in Gávea, Tijuca or in the Engenho Velho. So he availed himself, promiscuously, of devotion, irreligion and silk stockings. I never saw his silk stockings, but he didn’t keep secrets from his friends.

We first met when we both happened to be travelling to Vassouras. We’d alighted from the train and got into the carriage that was going to take us from the station to the town centre. We exchanged a few words and soon began talking more freely – as far as that was possible in the circumstances, i.e. we still hadn’t introduced ourselves properly.

Of course, the first subject of conversation was the progress that the railways would bring to Brazil. Benedito could remember when the whole journey was made on the back of a donkey. Then we exchanged some anecdotes, we spoke about a few well-known people, and we agreed that the railways were essential to the country’s progress. Someone who’s never been pulled along behind one of those solid, stolid locomotives can have no idea how they can dispel the tedium of travel. One’s spirit is lifted, one’s muscles relax, one’s heart beats calmly, and one remains at peace with God and men.

“Our children won’t live to see the whole country criss-crossed by railways,” he said.

“No, you’re right… Do you have children?”

“No, none.”

“Nor me… It will take at least fifty years; but it’s essential. I think of Brazil as a little child that’s just learnt to crawl; it will only walk when it’s criss-crossed with railways.”

Benedito’s eyes lit up:

“What a lovely comparison!”

“Never mind ‘lovely.’ What’s important is whether it’s correct.”

“Lovely and correct,” he replied good-humouredly. “Yes, you’re right: Brazil is crawling; it will only begin to walk when we’ve got lots of railways.”

We arrived at Vassouras; I went to the house of the district judge, an old friend of mine; Benedito stayed in the town for a day before continuing to the interior. Eight days later, I returned to Rio de Janeiro, but alone this time. He returned a week after that; we met at the theatre, talked a bit and exchanged news; Benedito ended up inviting me to lunch with him the next day. I duly went, and it was a lunch fit for a prince, enriched by good cigars and lively conversation, although I must confess I’d found what he said during our train ride more engaging – lifting one’s spirit and leaving one at peace with God and with men; but perhaps I was too engaged with the lunch on this occasion. It was really magnificent; and it would have been a great injustice to relegate it to a mere background to chit-chat, elbows on the edge of the table, and looking at the smoke rising from our cigars.

“On my travels just now, I saw how right you were with that idea of Brazil just crawling.”


“Yes, exactly as you were saying in the carriage to Vassouras. We won’t start walking until our country’s criss-crossed with railways. You can’t imagine how true that is!”

He went on to talk about lots of thing: the customs of the people of the interior, the difficulties of their lives, and their backwardness; but he was pleased to see their good heartedness and their hopes for progress. Unfortunately, the government wasn’t abreast of the needs of the country; it even seemed to want to keep it out of step with the other American nations – as if it was indispensable to persuade us that principles are everything and people nothing. People aren’t made for the sake of governments; governments are made for the people; abyssus abyssum invocat.

Afterwards, he took me to see the other rooms, which were all beautifully decorated. He showed me his collections of paintings, coins, antiquarian books, stamps, and weapons; he had swords and épées, but he admitted he didn’t know how to fence. One of the paintings was a beautiful portrait of a woman; I asked him who it was. Benedito just smiled.

I smiled too: “I won’t press you on it.”

“No, no,” he replied hurriedly. “I can’t deny it. I was much in love with her. Pretty, isn’t she? But you can’t imagine how beautiful she was in real life: carmine lips, rosy cheeks, eyes as dark as the sky at night. And teeth like pearls. A wonder of nature!”

We carried on to his office, which was enormous and elegant, although nothing so out of the ordinary. All present and correct. There were two bookcases, full of beautifully bound books, a map of the world, and two maps of Brazil. The ebony writing-desk was a piece of fine workmanship; and on it, lying casually open, was one of Laemmert’s almanaques. The inkwell was made of crystal – “rock crystal,” as he explained, in the same way he’d explained other individual items. There was an organ in the adjacent room. He spoke enthusiastically about it: he played the organ and loved music. He mentioned particular operas and which parts of them he liked best, and he told me that, when he was a boy, he’d started to learn the flute but had soon given it up – which was a pity, he said, because it’s such an emotive instrument. After showing me other rooms, he accompanied me to the garden, which was splendid: a wonderful balance of art enriching nature and nature enriching art. He had roses – “the Queen of Flowers,” he said – of every type and from every region.

I left enchanted.

Subsequently I had occasion to appreciate Benedito’s character further when we met on various occasions, in the street, in the theatre or in the houses of mutual friends.

Four months later, I left for Europe on business, which was going to keep me there for a year. Benedito remained, immersed in the elections because he wanted to be a deputy. It was I who’d encouraged him, not for any particular reason, but just to be agreeable; it wasn’t really much different from praising his waistcoat. But he’d caught hold of the idea and had put his name forward.

One day, when I was crossing the road in Paris, I suddenly bumped into him.

“What on earth…?!”

“I lost the election, so I came to see Europe.”

He didn’t part from me; we travelled together the rest of the time. He told me that losing the election hadn’t put him off having another go. In fact it had made him even more determined. And he told me his great plan.

“I want to see you become a minister,” I said.

Benedito hadn’t expected that. He beamed, but immediately tried to hide his satisfaction.

“Don’t say that. But if I were to be a minister, it would have to be minister for industry. We’ve had enough of political parties; we need to develop the latent power of our country, its huge resources. You remember what we were talking about in the carriage in Vassouras? Brazil is crawling; it will only walk when we have railways…”

I was somewhat amazed: “Quite right! And why do you think I’m here in Europe? I’ve come about a railway. I’ve been arranging things in London.”



I showed him the paperwork: appointments, statistics, publicity material, reports, copies of contracts, and everything about the engineering side of things. He looked at it all as if transfixed and told me he was going to put something similar together. And, indeed, I soon saw him going off to ministries, banks and associations, from which he returned with notes and booklets that he stored in his suitcases; but his enthusiasm waned almost as quickly as it had arrived – it was a passing fad. Benedito immersed himself once more, and with much more pleasure, in the minutiae of political and parliamentary language. He had a whole arsenal of the stuff in his head and often gave me the benefit of it in our conversations; he found it all greatly prestigious and of inestimable value. A lot of it had come via English translation, which he preferred to the others, as the English versions had a hint of the House of Commons about them. He savoured it all so much that I wondered if he’d accept liberty if it didn’t come with all that verbal apparatus; I think not. Indeed, if he’d had to choose, I think he’d have chosen all those short and pithy formulas, some of them beautiful, others sonorous, and all of them axiomatic, and which don’t require reflexion, which fill the silences, and which leave one at peace with God and with men.

We returned to Brazil together; but I remained in Pernambuco, before returning subsequently to London, whence I came to Rio de Janeiro a year later. By that time, Benedito was already a deputy. I went to visit him and found him preparing his maiden speech. He showed me some notes, parts of reports, books on political economy – some of them with the pages marked with strips of paper headed: Exchange Rates, Land Tax, English Corn Laws, Opinion regarding Ab ovo…

He was clearly determined to demonstrate to the practical men of the Assembly that he too was a practical man.

Then he asked me about the company; I told him what there was to know:

“Sometime in the next two years I’m expecting to inaugurate the first stretch of the railway.”

“And what about the English capitalists?”

“What about them?”

“Are they satisfied? Are they optimistic?”

“Very. You can’t imagine.”

I told him some of the technical details, which he listened to absent-mindedly – either because what I had to say was terribly complicated or for some other reason. When I finished, he told me it was good to see me so involved in industry; that’s exactly what we need, and, on that pretext, he did me the favour of reading me the draft of the speech he was due to deliver a few days later. It went like this:

In the midst of the growing agitation of spirits and of the clamour of political parties, which drowns out the voices of legitimate interests, allow me to give voice to the supplication of the nation. Honourable Members, it is time to concentrate exclusively – note that I say ‘exclusively’ – on the material improvement of our country. I am not unaware of what might be said to me by way of objection; I will be told that a nation does not solely comprise a stomach for the purposes of digestion, but also a head to think and a heart to feel. I reply thus: that all of that is of no or little consequence if the nation has not legs to walk; and here I shall repeat what I said, some years ago, to a friend during a journey through the interior: ‘Brazil is a little child that’s just learnt to crawl; but Brazil will only walk when it is criss-crossed by railways…’

I didn’t hear the rest because I was lost in thought – or rather, amazed and astounded by the abyss that psychology had just torn open at my feet. This man is sincere, I thought. He believes what he’s written. And I descended into the abyss, hoping to discern the highways and byways through which that snatch of conversation in the carriage to Vassouras had passed. And I found there – forgive me if I got carried away – I found there one more example of the law of evolution as defined by Spencer. Spencer or Benedito, one of them.


The following biographical details have been translated from the Academia Brasileira de Letras website.

Machado de Assis (Joaquim Maria M. de A.), a journalist, short-story writer, feuilletonist, novelist, poet and playwright, was born in Rio de Janeiro on 21 June 1839, and also died there, on 29 September 1908. He was the founder of Chair No. 23 of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. A good friend and admirer of José de Alencar, who died about twenty years before the establishment of the Academy, it was natural that Machado should choose the name of the author of O Guarani as his patron. He was President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters for more than ten years, the Academy becoming known, familiarly, as ‘The House of Machado de Assis.’

He was the son of Francisco José, a labourer, and Leopoldina Machado de Assis. His mother died when he was little, but information is scarce about his early years. He was brought up on Livramento Hill and was an altar server at Lampadosa church.

Without the means to have proper schooling, he published his first literary work – a poem called Ela (She) – in the Marmota Fluminense magazine in 1855. The next year he got a job at the National Press Works as an apprentice typographer.

By 1859 he was a proof-reader and correspondent for the Correio Mercantil newspaper and in 1860 he became a member of the editorial staff of the Diário do Rio de Janeiro newspaper. He also wrote regularly for the magazine O Espelho, where he made his debut as a theatre critic, for the Semana Ilustrada – from 1860 to 1875 – and for the Jornal das Famílias, where he mainly published short stories.

His first book, Queda que as mulheres têm para os tolos (How Women are Attracted to Fools), was printed by Paula Brito in 1861, although he was described as its translator. In 1862 he became theatre censor, an unpaid role, but one which gave him free entry to performances. He also began to collaborate with O Futuro, which was produced by Faustino Xavier de Novais, the brother of his future wife.

His first book of poetry, Crisálidas (Chrysalids), was published in 1864. In 1867 he was appointed assistant director of the government bulletin Diário Oficial. Three months after Faustino Xavier de Novais’s death in 1869, he married his friend’s sister, Carolina Augusta Xavier de Novais. She was a perfect companion during the remaining 35 years of his life and introduced him to the Portuguese classics and the works of various English authors.

His first novel, Ressurreição, was published in 1872. Shortly afterwards he was appointed first official at the state secretariat of the ministry of agriculture, commerce and public works, thus embarking upon the civil service career that would be his main source of income throughout the rest of his life.

In 1874 he began to publish, in instalments in the Globo newspaper, the novel A mão e a luva (The Hand and the Glove). He also wrote feuilletons, short stories, poetry and serialised novels for newspapers and magazines such as O Cruzeiro, A Estação and Revista Brasileira.

One of his plays, Tu, só tu, puro amor (You, just You, Pure Love) was staged at the Imperial Dom Pedro II Theatre in 1880. From 1881 to 1897 he published his best feuilletons in the Gazeta de Notícias.

1881 saw the publication of the book which would give a new direction to his literary career – Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas (The Posthumous Memories of Brás Cubas), which had been published in instalments in the Revista Brasileira from 1879 to 1880. He also revealed himself as an extraordinary short story writer in Papéis Avulsos (Loose Pages, 1882) and in a number of subsequent collections of short stories.

In 1889 he was promoted to director of commerce at the ministry.

He had continued to work for the Revista Brasileira in the period when it was under the direction of his great friend José Veríssimo. The group of intellectuals connected with the Revista had the idea for creating a Brazilian Academy of Letters and, when the Academy was inaugurated in 1897, he was elected President, a task he devoted himself to for the rest of his life.

His oeuvre covers practically all literary genres. His first works of poetry were the Romantic Crisálidas (1864) and Falenas (Moths, 1870); this was followed by indianism in Americanas (1875) and parnassianism in Ocidentais (Occidentals, 1901).

The Contos fluminenses (Rio Stories) were published in 1870 and the Histórias da meia-noite (Midnight Stories) in 1873; the novel Ressurreição (Resurrection) in 1872, A mão e a luva in 1874, Helena in 1876 and Iaiá Garcia in 1878, all of which were considered part of his Romantic period. From that point onwards he moved into the phase of his masterpieces, which evade literary categorisation and which make him the greatest Brazilian writer and one of the greatest authors in the Portuguese language.

During his life, his work was edited by the Livraria Garnier from 1869; in 1937, W. M. Jackson, of Rio de Janeiro, published the Obras completes (Complete Works) in 31 volumes. Raimundo Magalhães Júnior organised and published, in Civilização Brasileira, the following volumes of Machado de Assis: Contos e crônicas (Stories and Feuilletons, 1958); Contos esparsos (Random Stories, 1956); Contos esquecidos (Forgotten Stories, 1956); Contos recolhidos (Collected Stories, 1956); Contos avulsos (Separate Stories, 1956); Contos sem data (Undated Stories, 1956); Crônicas de Lélio (Lélio’s Chronicles, 1958); Diálogos e reflexões de um relojoeiro (Dialogues and Reflections of a Watchmaker, 1956). In 1975 the Machado de Assis Commission, which was established by the ministry of education and culture and was chaired by the president of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, organised and published, also in Civilização Brasileira, the Edições críticas de obras de Machado de Assis (Critical Editions of the Works of Machado de Assis), in 15 volumes, comprising short stories, novels and poetry by that greatest of Brazilian writers.

Publications: Desencantos, comedy (1861); Queda que as mulheres têm para os tolos, prose satire (1861); two comic plays: O protocolo and O caminho da porta (1863); Quase ministro, comedy; Crisálidas, poetry (1864); Os deuses de casaca, comedy (1866); Falenas, poetry (1870); Contos fluminenses, short stories (1870); Ressurreição,  novel (1872); Histórias da meia-noite, short stories (1873); A mão e a luva, novel (1874); Americanas, poetry (1875); Helena, novel (1876); Iaiá Garcia, novel (1878); Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, novel (1881); Tu, só tu, puro amor, comedy (1881); Papéis avulsos, short stories (1882); Histórias sem data, short stories (1884); Quincas Borba, novel (1891); Várias histórias, short stories (1896); Páginas recolhidas, short stories, essays, plays (1899); Dom Casmurro, novel (1899); Poesias completas (1901); Esaú e Jacó, novel (1904); Relíquias da casa velha, short stories, criticism, plays (1906); Memorial de Aires, novel (1908).

Published posthumously: Crítica (1910); Outras relíquias, short stories, criticism, theatre (1932); Crônicas, feuilletons (1937); Correspondência (1932); Crítica literária (1937); Páginas escolhidas (1921); Casa velha (1944).

To mark the centenary of Machado’s birth, in 1939, Monteiro Lobato wrote the following at the request of the Argentinian newspaper La Prensa:

‘The short stories of Machado de Assis! Where can we find stories more perfect in form, more sparkling with ideas and more permeated by philosophy? Where can you find stories more universal and more human whilst simultaneously local and individual? We’d need to go to France to find one of his brothers in the person of Anatole France. But Anatole France blossomed in the most propitious of gardens, amidst a highly developed civilisation, encouraged by all sorts of awards, and surrounded by all the finesse of comfort and art; Machado de Assis was born into poverty, amidst the squalor of colonial Rio, and received no awards other than his own auto-approval, and his monthly wage was scarcely enough to live on. Rather than having readers throughout the world, like Anatole France, Machado de Assis had just half a dozen friends as his readers. The paltry sum for which he sold the copyright for all his works to the Garnier publishing house […] shows clearly how limited was his readership.

Even so, despite all these limitations, it was his pen that produced the first masterpiece of Brazilian literature, Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas (The Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas), a book that’s going to surprise the world one day. They’ll all be saying: ‘How on earth could this have appeared in such an inferior country, in a South American backwater?!’

And then he gave us Dom Casmurro (Mr Grumpy), that perfect novel, and Esaú e Jacó (Esau and Jacob) and Quincas Borba and, finally Memorial de Aires, a work that brings style and romance to emptiness, to the emptiness of old age, to the emptiness of his own almost seventy years.

In between the novels, he was producing short stories – and what stories! What marvellous stories, different from anything produced in Brazil, or in the whole of America! Stories without tricks, without stage props, without lots of landscape, everything based on the most meticulous design, like the paintings of Ingres. Human types and more human types, souls and more souls – an immense procession of figures more vivid even than their models. And with what style, with what purity of language!

There are few great heights in Brazilian literature: plenty of writers, plenty of books, plenty of printed paper, but also plenty of vain pretension and, in recent times, plenty of impostors. But all those defects have been redeemed by the appearance of works of eternal value, works that will endure as long as the language in which they were written. ‘Missa do Galo’ (Midnight Mass), ‘Uns Braços’ (A Pair of Arms), ‘Conto Alexandrino’ (An Alexandrian Tale), ‘Capitulo dos Chapeus’ (A Chapter of Hats), ‘Anedota Pecuniária’ (A Pecuniary Anecdote) [Translations of the first four are available in John Gledson’s A Chapter of Hats (2008)] – it’s difficult to choose between Machado’s stories, because they’re all drawn from the same spring. Ah! If only Portuguese wasn’t this clandestine language…

Before writing these lines, I re-read several of Machado de Assis’s works and it’s only because I promised La Prensa I would that I forced myself to speak about him, so little, so insignificant, so miserable did I feel! I felt ashamed of judgements I’d made previously in which, either out of snobbery or stupidity, I’d dared to make ironic remarks about such work. And, given that I didn’t withdraw from this undertaking, at least it gives me a chance to undergo public penance – because, in all honesty, I find it grotesque that anyone nowadays should dare to speak about Machado de Assis without removing their hat. Our attitude should be marked by complete and reverential humility. If anyone doubts that, let them re-read ‘Conto Alexandrino’ or ‘Missa do Galo.’

In your presence, Machado, we’re all bit players…

The wariness with which Machado de Assis lived his life in Rio de Janeiro was supremely felicitous in his case – a difficult case, of extreme intellectual superiority allied to extreme awareness that it wouldn’t do to flaunt it, in view of the colour of his skin and his mundane job in public administration. How many proud but empty ministers must have been his legal and social superiors – superior to him, who was, simply on his own merits, the highest of the highest in Brazil! Time’s broom has already swept the names of all those bigwigs, all those ‘superiors,’ into the bin; but the name of Machado de Assis continues to rise higher and higher.

He was oddly gregarious. He always liked literary associations and societies, going so far as to found an academy of ‘immortals’ (the Brazilian Academy of Letters), of which he was the president, and he was the only one who really became an immortal, without the quotation marks. The explanation may reside in his innate need to observe ‘the puppet show’: gathering the puppets around whatever human stupidity, he had them conveniently to hand for his study, just as, in his laboratory, an anatomist has a collection of rabbits, dogs and monkeys in cages for his experimentation.

Machado’s philosophy was permeated by melancholy: he’d studies the guinea pigs too much, he knew the human soul too well. A calmly resigned philosophy, the ultimate point of which appears in Brás Cubas, that hero of self-satisfied vulgarity, who concludes his posthumous memoirs with the balance sheet of his earthly existence, a positive balance sheet. How come, positive? ‘I didn’t have children, I didn’t pass on to any other being  the legacy of our misery.’

The life of Machado de Assis also had a positive balance. He didn’t have children and, given that he couldn’t pass on his genius, at least he didn’t pass on to any other being the colour of his skin, his stutter, his epilepsy, his disenchantment with the puppets. And there could have been nothing more generous in his life. What a terrible thing for any being – even for a being of some capacity – to carry the stupendous burden, for your whole life, of being the child of Machado de Assis!

‘Do you know who that is, the sad old crow coming out of that office?’

‘That miserable-looking mulatto, the one with the hunchback?’

‘Yes, that one. That’s the son of Machado de Assis…’

Just imagine the look of pious sympathy this piece of information would evoke!

Nature permits geniuses only one child: their work. Machado de Assis understood this better than anyone and, having given the world this most beautiful child, he walked sadly away from the madding crowd, with the tranquillity of those who’ve succeeded in the most challenging of all tasks – that of not leaving behind the merest shadow of pain.’

For his part, Lima Barreto – who was initially often referred to as the true successor of Machado – was less fulsome in his praise:

Not denying his merits as a great writer, I’ve always found a considerable aridity in Machado, a marked lack of sympathy, a lack of generous impulses, some puerile characteristics. I’ve never imitated him and he’s never been my inspiration. You can mention Maupassant, Dickens, Swift, Balzac, Daudet, perhaps, but Machado, never! You could go as far as Turgenev or Tolstoy in order to find my exemplars; but Machado, no! […] Machado wrote […] hiding what he felt so as not to be humiliated […] I’m not afraid to say what I think and what I feel, without calculating whether I’m going to be humiliated or praised. I think that’s a big difference.

(Obras Completas de Lima Barreto, Correspondências, Vol.2, 1956).

"House by the Railroad," Edward Hopper, 1925

Fṛm Đ Gardịn: ‘They twist the message’: Brazilian writer faces ire of Bolsonaro backers

Julián Fuks says the message in his article has been distorted and that he used the word ‘terrorist’ in a figurative sense. Photograph: Roberto Ricciuti/Getty Images
Julián Fuks sz ɖ mesij in hiz articl hz bn dstortd n ɖt h yzd ɖ wrd ‘terrist’ in a fiğṛtiv sns. Foṭgraf: Roberto Ricciuti/Geti Iṃjz

‘Ɖe twist ɖ mesij’: Bṛziłn raitr fesz îr v Bolsonaro bacrz

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on 6 September 2022)

Julián Fuks rsivz deʈ̓rets ovr coḷm cōlñ fr ‘terrist’ t rīrait Bṛzil’z hisṭri

Andru Dǎni, Tyzde 6 Sptmbr 2022

Ɖe cd b elimnts in a teṛfayñ novl: ɖ pytrid hart v a loñ-ded emprr, a contṛvrśl nyzpepr coḷm bî a prîz-winñ oʈr, n onlîn atacs bî ɖ sunz v a far-rît prezidnt.

In Bṛzil, ɖo, ɖ storilînz r ol tù riyl, ispeṣ́li fr ɖ noṿlist Julián Fuks.

H wz haṛst, snt antiṣmitic abys n rsivd deʈ̓rets last wīc aftr pubḷśñ a ʈinli dsgîzd p’lemic agnst Bṛzil’z xtrimist prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro.

Ɖ coḷm wz tîtld “Wontd, a terrist ceṗbl v a sutl act ɖt trnsformz hisṭri”, bt ɖ articl md clir ɖ sumnz wz mnt in a fiğṛtiv sns.

Publiśt a wīc bfr Bṛzil seḷbrets ɖ 200ʈ aṇvrsri v its indipndns fṛm Porćgl – a seḷbreśn ɖt includz ɖ prizrvd hart v Bṛzil’z frst indipndnt rūlr, ɖ Porćgīz rījnt Dom Pedro I – Fuks sd a “terrist” wz rqîrd t rīrait Bṛziłn hisṭri.

“Nt wn v ɖoz vayḷnt wnz, abṣlutli nt an intolṛnt, brūtiś wn, nvr wn v ɖoz hu z bludi n cōrs,” h rout on ɖ UOL websait, wn v Bṛzil’z bigist. “Smbdi hu wl mc ɖ cuntri recnsîl itslf t its past, nt in its harś n unmrsifl sîd, bt in its vast hisṭri v strugl n rzistns.”

Ɖ sutltiz wr ignord bî Bṛzil’z faŗît, huz wel-ôld propganḍmśīn cranct intu ax́n.

Bolsonaro’z sun, Seṇtr Flávio Bolsonaro, rītwītd ɖ pìs wɖ ɖ coment: “Ɖ left ʈreṭnñ dmocṛsi, fr riyl.”

Hiz bruɖr Carlos – btwn ɖm ɖe hv 4.6 miłn folowrz – olso śerd it onlîn. On Insṭgram, Bolsonaro’z formr culćrministr Mario Frias sd: “UOL coḷmnist crîz ǎt fr terrizm agnst ɖ prezidnt.”

Ɖ cntrovsi wz recgnîzbl fr Fuks, ɖ oʈr v et bcs, ɖ frst v ẃć, Rzistns, wún Bṛzil’z prestijs Jabuti prîz in 2016.

Dez aftr Bolsonaro wz ilectd, h wornd in a presịnt Gardịn articl v “a dstopia tecñ śep in mî cuntri”.

Ɖ 40-yir-old huncrd dǎn in São Paulo in ɖ dez aftr ɖ abys startd bt hz sins hit bac.

“I yzd ɖ wrd terrist in a fiğṛtiv sns,” h sd, “n startñ wɖ ɖ oṗnñlîn I afrmd ɖt ɖ pṛpozl wz agnst ol cndz v vayḷns, trukḷns, brūtaḷti n cōrsnis.”

“Bt I unḍesṭmetd hǎ dsonist ɖ faŗît wd b,” h tld ɖ Gardịn. “I ń I cd b criṭsîzd n I ń it wz pṛvoc̣tiv bt I nvr imajind ɖ’d dstort it n lai abt it qt so mć. Ɖe dd’nt īvn trî t unḍstand, ɖe sòt t twist ɖ mesij n trnsform it intu smʈñ it wz’nt.”

Ɖoz tactics r grimli fmiłr t uɖr raitrz hu hv fest ɖ îr v Bolsonaro n hiz ac̣lîts. A Senit invstgeśn sd guvnmnt’fiślz ofn coorḍnet onlîn atacs fṛm ẃt z noun az “ɖ Ofis v Het.”

Poḷtiśnz, publiśrz n litrri figrz cndemd ɖ ofnsiv, wɖ Porćgl’z José Saramago Fǎndeśn cōlñ on locl oʈoṛtiz t “gaṛnti [Fuks’z] n hiz faṃli’z sefti n invstget ɖ oṛjin v ɖ atacs”.

Ɖ afer z ptiklrli alarmñ az it cmz jst a munʈ bfr ɖ frst-rnd v votñ in a preẓdnśl ilex́n ɖt pits Bolsonaro agnst hiz neṃsis, ɖ formr prezidnt Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

Lula līdz in most poulz, bt Bolsonaro hz hintd h wl nt gv p pǎr f bìtn at ɖ baḷtbox.

Bʈ sîdz hv upt ɖer reṭric in rīsnt wīcs, n Bolsonaro’z s’portrz hv atact Lula’z raliz wɖ crūd dvîsz cntenñ fīsīz n yrin.

Aftr a Wrcrz’-parti membr wz śot ded bî a Bolsonaro bacr in Jlî, Lula tc t wẹrñ a bŭlit-prūf vst on campenstops.

Bolsonaro’z nxt big rali z scejld fr Copacabana bīć on 7 Sptmbr n it z ɖt Indipndns De ivnt ɖt promtd Fuks t rait hiz coḷm.

Ɖ seḷbreśnz hv bn gvn an xtra frīsõ ɖs yir bî ɖ rtrn v Dom Pedro’z formalḍhîd-prizrvd hart.

Aftr h daid in 1834, Dom Pedro’z bodi rmend in Bṛzil bt hiz hart wz tecn t Porto. It wz floun t Bṛziła in a goldn ŕn last wīc, ẃr it wz grītd wɖ militri onrz.

Fuks’z pìs z dsmisiv v ɖ ʈiytr arnd ɖ “rotn hart” tur n śon a criticl lît on Bṛzil’z latr-de probḷmz.

Ɖ terrist rqîrd, h rout, śd b “smbdi hu nz hǎ t brñ a sūṭbl end t ɖ hart v a slf-pṛclemd emprr, in ordr t rstor t ɖ ppl ɖer ǒn hart, red n alîv”.

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Obzrvr │ ‘Carnival is politics’: revellers bring anti-Bolsonaro sentiment to Rio’s streets

Revellers enjoy the passage of performers on Olympic Boulevard in Rio in their first carnival since Covid. Photograph: Jose Lucena/ZUMA Press Wire/REX/Shutterstock
Revlrz injô ɖ pasij v pformrz on Olimpic Būḷvard in Rio in ɖer frst carnivl sins Covid. Foṭgraf: Jose Lucena/ZUMA Preswîr/REX/Śuṭstoc

‘Carnivl z poḷtics’: revlrz brñ anti-Bolsonaro sntimnt t Rio’z strīts

(Transcription of an article published in the Observer on Sunday 24 April 2022)

Wɖ ilex́nz les ɖn six munʈs awe, mni si fstivl az a ćans t vnt ɖer angr at faŗît prezidnt

Tom Phillips

Tom Filips in Rio de Janeiro, Súnde 24 Epril 2022

Az ɖ sún rouz ovr Rio’z breʈtecñ granit n qorts lanscep, José Leonardo da Silva set of fṛm hom drest az a 6ft 2in box v Viagra.

Hiz desṭneśn: a bīć-sîdstrīt parti cōld ɖ Cozmic Trumpits ẃr hundṛdz v haf-cloɖd revlrz hd gaɖrd t seḷbret ɖer frst carnivl sins Covid. Hiz mesij: ɖt ɖ scandl involvñ ɖ prćis v tnz v ʈǎzndz v irectîl-dsfuñśn tablits bî Prezidnt Jair Bolsonaro’z dfnsmiṇstri wz an intolṛbl afrunt.

“Carnivl z poḷtics tù,” sd Silva, a 43-yir-old sîcoḷjist fṛm Bṛzil’z hlʈsrvis, az h priperd t spend ɖ de dnǎnsñ Bolsonaro’z “cmplitli fasist” guvnmnt bî dsgîzñ himslf az a pacit v 50mg imṗtnspilz.

Silva wz nt ɖ onli wn wɖ poḷtics on hiz mînd ɖs wīc az bac̣neła gript Rio’z strīts fr ɖ frst tîm sins Febrri 2020.

Wɖ a bruzñ ilectṛl batl fr Bṛzil’z soul les ɖn six munʈs awe, mni sw carnivl az a ćans t vnt ɖer splīn at Bṛzil’z faŗît prezidnt, hu rtenz a f’rośsli loyl s’portbes bt z rpydietd bî mor ɖn haf v votrz.

Lǎd crîz v “Bolsonaro ǎt!” iruptd at Rio’z Samḅdrom on Frîde nît az ɖ siti’z top samḅscūlz hld ɖer frst pṛseśnz sins ɖ c’roṇvîṛs pandemic bgan. Ɖ prezidnt’s sun, Seṇtr Flávio Bolsonaro, wz stōct n tōntd bî angri revlrz ẃl trayñ t woć ɖ p’redz ẃl a banr dmandñ hiz faɖr’z rmuvl wz unfrld fṛm wn v ɖ standz.

Spectetrz in wn v ɖ Samḅdrom’z xclūsiv “lux̣́riboxz” śǎtd insults abt Bolsonaro’z mn preẓdnśl rîvl, ɖ formr leftist prezidnt Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Bt on ɖ wrcñclas teṛsz n at ɖ roumñ strītpartiz noun az blocos ɖr wz s’port fr Lula.

“I fīl hopfl bcz I b’liv dmocṛsi mst privel ovr oʈoṛterịnizm – n ɖr’z onli wn canddet hu cn aćiv ɖs n it’s Lula,” sd Angelo Morse, 43, hu wouc p at 4.30am on Ʈrzde t jôn a bloco cōld Ẃt a Luvli Wetḷnd.

Morse, an edycetr hu clemd t b a distnt reḷtiv v ɖ Norʈ Americn invntr Saḿl FB Morse, cem t carnivl wẹrñ an aḷgetrcostym dzînd t pṛtst at Bolsonaro’z hanḍlñ v a Covid ǎtbrec ẃć hz left mor ɖn 660,000 Bṛziłnz ded.

“Prezidnt Bolsonaro z a mōrón n sd ɖt f y got vax̣netd y’d trn intu an aḷgetr,” h sd bî we v xpḷneśn az ɖ sqer arnd him fild wɖ inībrietd partigowrz drest az pîṛts, devlz, nunz, sūṗhiroz, sìcrīćrz n, in wn ces, a botl v Hînz Yelo Musṭd. Wn carid a portrit śowñ Bolsonaro spywñ a rivr v grīn suij.

On a nirbî lōn, ɖ art d’rectr Maria Estephania spouc dspondntli abt ɖ sośl, culćṛl n ic̣nomic dclîn ś b’livd hd pleid ǎt sins Bolsonaro’z śoc 2018 ilex́nvicṭri.

“W fuct ǎrslvz” bî ilectñ Bolsonaro, Estephania, 34, sd wɖ a sai, az ś tc a brec fṛm partiyñ at Liqid Luvz, a bloco inspîrd bî ɖ wrc v ɖ sośioḷjist Zygmunt Bauman.

Estephania’z ǎtfit – a scarlit cep plastrd wɖ sticrz pṛmotñ Lula n Marcelo Freixo, a leftist alî ś hops wl b ilectd Rio’z nxt guvnr – îdnṭfaid an oltrṇtiv fyćr. “It’s an ilex́nyir n w nīd t ri’frm ǎr valyz, ẃć ber no rleśn t ɖoz v ɖ p’liticl grūp ẃć cuṛntli holdz pǎr,” Estephania sd. “Ǎr valyz hv abṣlutli nʈñ t d wɖ Bolsonaro.”

Nt evrbdi wontd t tōc poḷtics az carnivl rtrnd aftr a tū-yir Covid hieṭs.

At a bloco ǎtsd Rio’z Ḿziym v Tmoro, Eduardo Faria, a portli motrbîc curịr in a trqôz tūtu, bizid himslf filñ a pīnis-śept wōtrpistl wɖ minṛlwōtr. “I’m jst hir t hv fun! No poḷtics plīz!” ɖ 39-yir-old gigld. “It’s carnivl!”

Farɖr wst in Vila Mimoza, Rio’z red-lît district, anɖr rōc̣s pṛseśn wz abt t bgin, léd bî sxwrcrz n samḅḿziśnz. Ɖ most moḍstli drest partigowr wz Everson Almeida, a formr semiṇrist wẹrñ ɖ blac caṣc h yzd bfr dićñ planz t jôn ɖ prīsthd. A sticr bnʈ hiz clericl colr dclerd: “Bolsonaro ǎt!”

“H’z a sor on ǎr ssayti,” sd Almeida, 29, hu bōlct at Bolsonaro’z ptreyl v himslf az a God-firñ Crisćn. “Crîst cem t dlivr a mesij v śltr n incluźn, nt segṛgeśn, slfiśnis n conflict.”

Az ɖ drumr wormd p, Almeida vôst confidns ɖt ɖ Bolsonaro ira wz enṭrñ its fînl ćaptr, wɖ Lula līdñ in ɖ poulz.

“God wilñ [h’z finiśt],” h sd, pôntñ hevnẉdz. “N ɖs mst b ẃt H wonts.”

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Gardịn │ Climate crisis: Amazon rainforest tipping point is looming, data shows

The scientists say Amazon dieback has been having ‘profound implications at a global scale’. Photograph: Morley Read/Alamy
Ɖ sayntists se Aṃzn dîbac hz bn hvñ ‘pṛfǎnd impḷceśnz at a globl scel’. Foṭgraf: Morli Rīd/Aḷmi

Clîṃtcrîsis: Aṃzn renforist tipñpônt z lūmñ, deta śoz

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on Monday 7 March 2022)

Anaḷsis v saṭlît obẓveśnz śo forist z luzñ stbiḷti wɖ ‘pṛfǎnd’ globl impḷceśnz

Damian Carrington

Demịn Carñtn, Invîrnmnt editr, Munde, 7 Marć 2022

Ɖ  Aṃzn z aproćñ a tipñpônt, deta śoz, aftr ẃć ɖ renforist wd b lost, wɖ “pṛfǎnd” impḷceśnz fr ɖ globl clîṃt n bîoḍvrṣti.

Cmpytrmodlz hv prīvịsli indcetd a mas dîbac v ɖ Aṃzn z poṣbl, bt ɖ ny anaḷsis z best on riyl-wrld saṭlît obẓveśnz ovr ɖ past ʈri decedz.

Novl sttisticl anaḷsis śoz ɖt mor ɖn 75% v ɖ untućt forist hz lost stbiḷti sins ɖ rli 2000z, mīnñ it tecs longr t rcuvr aftr drǎts n wîldfîrz.

Ɖ gretist los v stbiḷti z in eriaz closr t farmz, rodz n ŕbn eriaz n in rījnz ɖt r bcmñ drîr, sjstñ ɖt forist dstrux́n n globl hītñ r ɖ cōz. Ɖz factrz “me olrdi hv pśt ɖ Aṃzn clos t a criticl ʈreśhold v renforist dîbac”, ɖ sayntists cnclud.

Ɖ studi dz nt inebl a pridix́n v ẃn ɖ tipñpônt cd b rīćt. Bt ɖ rsrćrz wornd ɖt bî ɖ tîm ɖ triġrñ v ɖ tipñpônt cd b dtctd, it wd b tù lêt t stop it.

Wns trigrd, ɖ renforist wd trnsform t grasland ovr a fy decedz at most, rlisñ hyj amǎnts v carbn n axeḷretñ globl hītñ frɖr.

Tipñpônts on a planitri scel r amñ ɖ gretist firz v clîṃtsayntists, az ɖe r irivrsbl on hymn tîmscelz. In 2021, ɖ sem sttisticl tecnīc rvild wornñsînz v ɖ c’laps v ɖ Gulfstrīm n uɖr ci Atlantic cuṛnts, wɖ “an olmst cmplit los v stbiḷti ovr ɖ last snć̣ri”.

A śutdǎn v ɖz cuṛnts wd hv caṭstrofic consiqnsz arnd ɖ wrld, dsruptñ monsūnrenz n indenjrñ Antartic îs śīts.

Anɖr rīsnt studi śoud ɖt a sgnificnt part v ɖ Grīnḷnd îs śīt z on ɖ brinc v a tipñpônt, ẃć wd līd t 7 mītrz v sìlevl rîz ovr tîm.

“Mni rsrćrz hv ʈiyrîzd ɖt an Aṃzn tipñpônt cd b rīćt, bt ǎr studi pṛvîdz vîtl impiricl evidns ɖt w r aproćñ ɖt ʈreśhold,” sd Pṛf. Niklas Boers, at ɖ Tecnicl Yṇvrṣti v Ḿnic in Jrṃni.

“Siyñ sć a rziłnslos in obẓveśnz z wuriyñ. Ɖ Aṃzn renforist storz hyj amǎnts v carbn ɖt cd b rlist in ɖ ces v īvn parśl dîbac.”

The edge of the ice sheet in the north of Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Photograph: Hannibal Hanschke/Reuters
Ɖ éj v ɖ îs śīt in ɖ norʈ v Kangerlussuaq, Grīnḷnd. Foṭgraf: Hannibal Hanschke/Rôtrz

Ɖ sayntists sd Aṃzn dîbac hd “pṛfǎnd impḷceśnz at a globl scel”. Boers add: “Ɖ Aṃzn z defiṇtli wn v ɖ fastist v ɖz tipñ elimnts in ɖ clîṃtsistm.”

Ɖ rsrć, publiśt in ɖ jrnl Nećr Clîṃtćenj, xamind saṭlîtdeta on ɖ amǎnt v vejteśn in mor ɖn 6,000 gridsélz acrs ɖ untućt Aṃzn fṛm 1991 t 2016.

Ɖe faund ɖt in ɖ past 20 yirz eriaz impactd bî drǎts or fîrz tc sgnificntli longr t rcuvr ɖn bfr. Ɖs z a ci sîn v incrisñ instbiḷti bcz it śoz ɖ prosesz v resṭreśn r gtñ wìcr.

Drîr eriaz v ɖ forist lost mor stbiḷti ɖn wetr wnz. “Ɖs z alarmñ, az ɖ IPCĆ [Inṭguvnmntl Panl on Clîṃtćenj] modlz pṛjct an oṿol drayñ v ɖ Aṃzn rījn in rspons t globl wormñ,” Boers sd.

Eriaz closr t hymn dstrux́n v ɖ forist olso bcem mor unstebl. Triz r crūśl in pṛdysñ ren, so félñ ɖm t clir land fr bīf n soi pṛdux́n criets a viśs srcl v drîr cndiśnz n mor trīlos.

Anɖr studi in 2021, best on deta fṛm hundṛdz v smōl-plein flîts, śoud ɖ Aṃzn nǎ imits mor carbndîoxîd ɖn it abzorbz, mostli bcz v fîrz.

Bt Boers sd ɖ deta indcetd ɖt ɖ tipñpônt hz nt yt bn crost: “So ɖr’z hop.” Pṛf. Tim Lentn at Xitr Yṇvrṣti in ɖ YC, a co-oʈr v ɖ studi, sd: “It s’ports eḟts t rvrs dīfoṛsteśn n degṛdeśn v ɖ Aṃzn t gv it bac sm rziłns agnst ongwñ clîṃtćenj.”

Cris Jǒnz, at ɖ Met Ofis Hadli Sntr in ɖ YC, n nt part v ɖ studitīm, sd: “Ɖs rsrć adz cmpelñ evidns ɖt clîṃtćenj z a risc nǎ, n ɖt ɖz svir n irivrsbl impacts cd bcm a riaḷti. W hv a naro windo v oṗtyṇti t tec rjnt ax́n.

“Ɖ wuriyñ cncluźn [v ɖ studi] fits wɖ uɖr rīsnt rsrć on incrist trīmortaḷti, incrist fîrz, n rdyst rījnl carbn sncs. Ɖ IPCĆ rport ǎt last wīc asest ɖt riscs v larj scel snğlr ivnts, sć az Aṃzn dîbac, r nǎ closr ɖn evr.”

Bernardo Flores, at ɖ Fedṛl Yṇvrṣti v Santa Catarina in Bṛzil, sd: “Ɖ studi śoz ɖt olɖo ɖ forist me sīm fîn, wɖ its norml strucćr n bîoḍvrṣti, intrnl prosesz r olrdi ćenjñ, sîḷntli, rdysñ ɖ sistm’z cpaṣti t psist in ɖ loñ run. Ɖ aproć yzd z inṭrestñ bcz it rvilz rli-wornñ signlz v ɖz ćenjz.”

Flores’z rsrć rvild ɖt s’vānaz wr xpandñ at ɖ hart v ɖ Aṃzn bcz v wîldfîrz.

Ɖ guvnmnt v Bṛzil’z prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro, hz bn harśli criṭsîzd fr incuṛjñ mor dīfoṛsteśn, ẃć sōrd bî 22% in ɖ yir t Nvmbr, ɖ hîist levl sins 2006.

Boers sd: “It’s riyli compḷcetd t se ẃt’s gwñ t b frst: rīćñ a tipñpônt bî [los v stbiḷti] v ɖ naćṛl vejteśnsistm, or jst ɖ bldozrz rīćñ ɖ forist.”

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Obzrvr │ Brazilian politician’s sexist remarks about Ukraine refugees spark outrage

São Paulo congressman Arthur do Val made the remarks during a purportedly humanitarian mission to Ukraine. Photograph: Fabricio Bomjardim/Zuma Press Wire/Rex/Shutterstock
São Paulo congresmn Arthur do Val md ɖ rmarcs jrñ a pportidli hymaṇterịn miśn t Ycren. Foṭgraf: Fabrício Bomjardim/Zuma Pres Wîr/Rex/Śuṭstoc

Bṛziłn poḷtiśn’z sxist rmarcs abt Ycren refyjīz sparc ǎtrej

(Transcription of an article published in the Observer on Sunday 6 March 2022)

Arthur do Val hŕd in līct ōdiomeṣjz cōlñ wimin fliyñ wor ‘īzi bcz ɖ’r pur’

Tom Phillips

Tom Filips in Rio de Janeiro, Súnde, 6 Marć 2022

A  prominnt membr v ɖ Bṛziłn rît z fesñ cōlz t rzîn aftr h wz xpozd in līct ōdiomeṣjz mcñ a s’xeśn v caḷs n msoɉnistic rmarcs abt Ycreńn refyjīz jrñ a pportidli hymaṇterịn miśn t ɖ rīsntli invedd cuntri.

Arthur do Val, a São Paulo congresmn n formr s’portr v Bṛzil’z rîtwñ prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro, md a ʈri-de trip t ɖ rījn last wīc, s’pozidli t rêz awernis v ɖ hymn cost v Vlajīmir Pūćin’z atac.

On Ʈrzde Do Val, 35, twītd a foṭgraf v himslf srǎndd bî crets v molotov cocteilz in ɖ bordr siti v Ŭźhorod. Hiz traṿlñpartnr, ɖ rîtwñ acṭvist Renan Santos, sd ɖe hd dnetd ʈǎzndz v dolrz, hlpt refyjīz cros ɖ bordr n “filmd ɖ riaḷti v a cuntri at wor.”

Do Val’z trip hd ɖ blesñ v Sergio Moro, ɖ cnsrṿtiv xjuj n ministr hu hops t ćalinj Bolsonaro n hiz left-wñ rîvl Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Octobr’z preẓdnśl ilex́n. “It’s olwz cmnḍbl ẃn w pt ǎr wrdz intu practis,” Moro twītd.

Sć ostnsbli nobl objctivz wr śatrd on Frîde, hvr, ẃn ɖ Bṛziłn mīdia publiśt ōdiomeṣjz in ẃć Do Val spouc in hîli ofnsiv trmz abt Ycreńn refyjīz – mor ɖn 1.3 miłn v hūm hv fled oṿsìz sins Vlajīmir Pūćin’z 24 Febrri inveźn.

In wn rcordñ, ɖ poḷtiśn sz: “I’v jst crost ɖ bordr on ft btwn Ycren n Sḷvacia. Bro, I swer t y … I’v nvr sìn enʈñ lîc it in trmz v bytifl grlz. Ɖ refyjī k … it’s lîc 200 mītrz loñ or mor v jst totl godesz … It’s sm increḍbl śit … Ɖ k ǎtsd Bṛzil’z bst nîtclub … dz’nt cm clos t ɖ refyjī k hir.”

In a secnd xrpt Do Val sz: “Let m tel y, ɖ’r īzi bcz ɖ’r pur.”

In a ʈrd h mcs obsin rmarcs abt fīmel s’kṛti ofiślz at ɖ Ycren/Sḷvacia bordr, bfr adñ: “Jst unḅlivbl, dyd. Az sn az ɖs wor’z ovr, I’m cmñ bac.”

Ɖ coments sparct rvulśn, wɖ mor ɖn 40,000 ppl sînñ an onlîn ptiśn dmandñ Do Val’z xpulśn fṛm São Paulo’z 94-sīt parḷmnt.

Fabiana Tronenko, ɖ wîf v Ycren’z formr ambasdr t Bṛzil, publiśt a tirfl Twitr vidio in ẃć ś cōld ɖ poḷtiśn a śemlis cretin. “Śo sm rspct, y punc … Y’v no îdīa ẃt ɖ Ycreńn ppl r gwñ ʈru.”

Ycren’z chargé d’affaires in Bṛzil, Anatoli Tcać, cōld ɖ rmarcs un’xptbl.

Do Val, hu rtrnd t Bṛzil on Saṭde t dscuvr h hd lost ci alîz n hiz grlfrend, apoḷjîzd n sòt t jusṭfî hiz wrdz. Aftr ʈri dez “wɖt drincñ wōtr or hvñ a śǎr” h clemd h hd bcm “oṿixîtd”. “Mî mînd wz rêsñ. I tōct nonsns,” h sd, abandnñ planz t run fr São Paulo’z guṿnrśp.

Critics wr unimprest, cōlñ hiz bhevyr tipicl v Bṛzil’z śoṿnist n tstosṭron-ćarjd hard-rît.

“Hǎ nōzietñ,” twītd Gleisi Hoffmann, ɖ prezidnt v Bṛzil’z Wrcrz’ parti. “Ɖs z ɖ cnd v prsn hu ilectd Bolsonaro! H mst b stript v pǎr.”

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Fṛm Đ Gardịn │ ‘The heart of darkness’: neighbors shun Brazil over Covid response

A woman lays a rose on mattresses symbolising coronavirus victims, at a protest in Rio against Bolsonaro’s pandemic response. Photograph: Carl de Souza/AFP/Getty Images
A wmn lez a rouz on matṛsz simḅlîzñ c’roṇvîṛsvictimz, at a protest in Rio agnst Bolsonaro’z pandemic rspons. Foṭgraf: Carl de Souza/AFP/Geti Iṃjz

‘Ɖ hart v darcnis’: nebrz śun Bṛzil ovr Covid rspons

(Transcription of a Guardian article of 30 March 2021)

Latin Americn cuntriz scrambl t pṛtct ɖmslvz fṛm a cuntri ẃr nirli 60,000 ppl r xpctd t dî in Marć alon

Tom Filips in Rio de Janeiro, Uci Goñi in Buenos Aires n Jo Parcin Dańlz in Bogotá, 30 Marć 2021

It hz loñ bn rgardd az a soft-pǎr sūṗpǎr, ɖ sún-cist, culćṛli blest land v Bossa Nova, Capoeira n Pelé.

Bt Bṛzil’z śambolic rspons t c’roṇvîṛs undr far-rît prezidnt Jair Bolsonaro hz cast Latin America’z larjist cuntri in an unfmiłr n unpleznt rǒl: ɖt v a Covid-ridld, sayns-śunñ, p’liticli unstebl ǎtcast on hūm mni rījnl nebrz r nǎ śutñ ɖ dor.

“Ɖ uɖr de I sw a priti stroñ articl seyñ Bṛzil wz startñ t b sìn bî its nebrz az a sort v leprcoḷni … n it’s probbli tru,” cnsidd Ricardo Ricupero, a vetṛn Bṛziłn dipḷmat hu qotd Jozif Conrad, nt João Gilberto, t dscrîb hiz cuntri’z pridic̣mnt.

“Ɖ horr! Ɖ horr!” ɖ rtîrd ambasdr l’mntd last wīc, bfr hiz cuntri wz plunjd intu frɖr p’liticl trbyḷns bî Bolsonaro’z unixpctd sacñ v ɖ dfnsministr. “Bṛzil z in ɖ hart v darcnis.”

Bṛzil’z nebrz, hu r nǎ scramḅlñ t rspond t ɖ meltdǎn nxt dor, sīm t agri, wɖ Arjntīna, C’lumbia n P’ru banñ flîts t ɖer Porćgīz-spīcñ nebr, n Veṇzwela’z līdr, Nicolás Maduro, b’retñ hiz rîtwñ rîvl ovr a c’laṃti ɖt hz cild mor ɖn 300,000 Bṛziłnz.

“It’s alarmñ, īvn dstresñ, t si ɖ rports ǎt v São Paulo n Rio … n ɖ reclis attyd v ɖ Trumpist Bṛziłn rît n Jair Bolsonaro twdz ɖ ppl v Bṛzil,” Maduro dclerd last wīc az h ordrd a 14-de locdǎn t cǎntr ɖ mor cntejs P1 verịnt at ɖ hart v globl firz ovr Bṛzil’z unćect ǎtbrec.

“Bṛzil nǎ repriznts a ʈret t ɖ wrld. N huz fōlt z it? Jair Bolsonaro’z,” Maduro pṛclemd, jabñ hiz indx fngr intu ɖ er. “It’s jst madnis. Ɖr’z no nem fr it.”

Sevn ʈǎznd ciloṃtrz sǎʈ v Caracas, in Yṛḡî, ɖr r sînz v similr alarm, wɖ oʈoṛtiz rêsñ t vax̣net rezidnts v its bordŗījn wɖ Bṛzil. “Ɖ îdīa z t criet an eṗdīmịlojicl śīld,” sd Rodni Colina, a guvnmnt Covid advîzr n vroḷjist hu dtctd Yṛḡî’z frst P1 cesz n hz bn cōlñ fr tuf rstrix́nz t stop its spred. “F w start siyñ P1 srklet wîdli w’d nīd t g fr a totl cloźr v olmst evrʈñ,” Colina wornd.

Clos t 60,000 Bṛziłnz r xpctd t dî in Marć alon, mcñ it bî far ɖ most dedli munʈ v Bṛzil’z 13-munʈ eṗdemic.

In Arjntīna, tù, slīp z biyñ lost ovr ɖ mêhem. A grūp v līdñ Arjntinịn sayntists rīsntli pénd an opn letr implorñ ɖer guvnmnt t cloz its 761-mîl landbordr wɖ Bṛzil.

“Bṛzil z a mirr w wd rɖr nt hv t lc intu. Ɖt’s ẃ it’s so importnt t impoz travl rstrix́nz stret awe bcz wns cntejnz start t rîz it wl b tù lêt,” sd Humberto Debat, an Arjntinịn bîoḷjist hu hlpt pṛdys ɖ apil, ẃć cndemd Bolsonaro’z “irisponsbl n dnaylist” bhevyr.

Last Ʈrzde, az Bṛzil rcordd mor ɖn 100,000 Covid-19 cesz in a sngl de fr ɖ frst tîm, Arjntīna anǎnst it wd ban flîts fṛm Bṛzil, Ćíli n Mx̣co. Soledad Retamar, a staṭstiśn wrcñ on Covid deta hu bacs sć muvz, sd: “Ɖ fir z ɖt w cd start siyñ ɖ cnd v mortaḷtirets ɖe hd in Manaus rlịr ɖs yir f ɖ P1 verịnt starts srkletñ in Arjntīna.”

C’lumbịn ofiślz bánd flîts fṛm Bṛzil in Jańri az wel az hōltñ intrnl flîts t ɖ Aṃzn bordr tǎn v Leticia, ẃr iḿnîześn eḟts r tarġtñ yungr adults in an atmt t bloc ɖ spred v ɖ P1 verịnt. Ana Mauad, an inṭnaśnl-rleśnz pṛfesr at Bogotá’z Javeriana Yṇvrṣti, sd Bolsonaro’z “cmplit lac v straṭji n mshanḍlñ v ɖ pandemic” hd śoct ɖ rījn.

“Bolsonaro hz manijd t trn Bṛzil intu a jîgantic helhoul,” C’lumbia’z formr prezidnt Ernesto Samper twītd last wīc, az ɖ Wrld Hlʈ Orġnîześn admitd “ɖ dîr sićueśn” in Bṛzil wz nǎ afctñ its nebrz.

Bolsonaro’z admiṇstreśn hz riactd ōcẉdli t ɖ cōṛs v inṭnaśnl criṭsizm.

“I ʈnc ɖs z … teṛbli unjust,” Bṛzil’z pro-Trump foṛn ministr, Ernesto Araújo, tld ɖ Estado de São Paulo nyzpepr rlịr ɖs munʈ. Araújo, hu rzînd on Munde aftr a rbełn fṛm dipḷmats n lwmecrz hu akz him v hlpñ traś Bṛzil’z inṭnaśnl repyteśn, rjctd ɖ îdīa ɖt ɖr wz enʈñ “ǎt v cntrol” in hiz cuntri n clemd Bṛzil wz ɖ victim v “dscriṃneśn”.

“It’s az f … ppl r onli dayñ in Bṛzil,” Bolsonaro grumbld last wīc.

Ricupero sd ɖr wz no hîdñ ɖt hiz Sǎʈ Americn cuntri hd bcm ɖ pandemic’s “abṣlut eṗsntr” n pridictd rījnl rstrix́nz wd incris in ɖ cmñ wīcs in cuntriz sć az B’livia, C’lumbia n P’ru.

“Rît nǎ, Bṛzil z at ɖ aur ẃn darcnis rênz,” h sd.



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Fṛm Đ Gardịn │ Indigenous peoples by far the best guardians of forests – UN report

A Waiapi boy climbs up a Geninapo tree to pick fruits to make body paint at the Waiapi indigenous reserve in Amapa state, Brazil. Photograph: AFP Contributor/AFP/Getty Images
A Waiapi bô clîmz p a jeninapo tri t pic frūts t mc bodipent at ɖ Waiapi indijṇs rzrv in Amapa stet, Bṛzil. Foṭgraf: AFP Cntribytr/AFP/Geti Iṃjz

Indijṇs pplz bî far ɖ bst gardịnz v forists – YN rport

(Transcription of a Guardian article of 25 March 2021)

Prizrvñ Latin America’z forists z vîtl t fît ɖ clîṃtcrîsis, n dfoṛsteśn z lowr in indijṇs teritriz

Deḿn Carñtn, Invîrnmnt editr, 25 Marć 2021

Ɖ  imbatld indijṇs pplz v Latin America r bî far ɖ bst gardịnz v ɖ rījnz’ forists, acordñ t a YN rport, wɖ dfoṛsteśnrets p t 50% lowr in ɖer teritriz ɖn elsẃr.

Pṛtctñ ɖ vast forists z vîtl t tac̣lñ ɖ clîṃtcrîsis n pluṃtñ popyleśnz v wîldlîf, n ɖ rport faund ɖt recgnîzñ ɖ rîts v indijṇs n trîbl pplz t ɖer land z wn v ɖ most cost-ifctiv ax́nz. Ɖ rport olso cōlz fr ɖ pplz t b peid fr ɖ invîrnmntl beṇfits ɖer stywdśp pṛvîdz, n fr fundñ fr ɖ rīvîṭlîześn v ɖer ansestṛl nolij v livñ in harṃni wɖ nećr.

Hvr, ɖ dmand fr bīf, sô, timbr, ôl n minṛlz mīnz ɖ ʈrets t indijṇs pplz n ɖer foristhomz r rîzñ. Hundṛdz v cḿṇtilīdrz hv bn cild bcz v dspyts ovr land in rīsnt yirz, n ɖ Covid-19 pandemic hz add t ɖ denjrz forist pplz fes.

Sateré-Mawé men collect medicinal herbs to treat people showing Covid symptoms, in a rural area west of Manaus, Brazil. Photograph: Ricardo Oliveira/AFP/Getty Images
Sateré-Mawé men c’lect mdisinl hrbz t trīt ppl śowñ Covid simtmz, in a rṛl eria wst v Manaus, Bṛzil. Foṭgraf: Ricardo Oliveira/AFP/Geti Iṃjz

Dmandz bî indijṇs pplz fr ɖer rîts hv bcm incrisñli viẓbl in rīsnt yirz, ɖ rport sd, bt ɖs hz cm wɖ incrisñ prṣkśn, resizm, n asaṣneśnz. S’portñ ɖz pplz t pṛtct ɖ forists z ptiklrli crūśl nǎ wɖ sayntists wornñ ɖt ɖ Aṃzn z nirñ a tipñpônt ẃr it swićz fṛm renforist t svana, riscñ ɖ rlis v biłnz v tunz v carbn intu ɖ atṃsfir.

Ɖ rport wz pṛdyst bî ɖ YN Fūd n Agriculćr Orġnîześn n ɖ Fund fr ɖ Dveḷpmnt v Indijṇs Pplz v Latin America n ɖ Caṛbiyn (Filac), best on a rvy v mor ɖn 300 studiz.

“Olmst haf v ɖ intact forists in ɖ Aṃzn besn r in indijṇs teritriz n ɖ evidns v ɖer vîtl rǒl in foristpṛtx́n z cristl-clir,” sd ɖ prezidnt v Filac, Mirna Cunñm, an indijṇs wmn fṛm Nic̣rağa. “Ẃl ɖ eria v intact forist dclînd bî onli 5% btwn 2000 n 2016 in ɖ rījn’z indijṇs eriaz, in ɖ non-indijṇs eriaz it fél bî 11%. Ɖs z ẃ [indijṇs pplz’] vôs n viźn śd b tecn intu acǎnt in ol globl iniṣ́tivz rletñ t clîṃtćenj, bîoḍvrṣti n foṛstri.”

“Indijṇs pplz hv a difṛnt consept v forists,” ś sd. “Ɖe r nt sìn az a ples ẃr y tec ǎt rzorsz t incris yr muni – ɖe r sìn az a spes ẃr w liv n ɖt z gvn t s t pṛtct fr ɖ nxt jeṇreśnz.”

Indijṇs n trîbl teritriz cnten abt a ʈrd v ol ɖ carbn stord in ɖ forists v Latin America, sd Julio Berdegué, ɖ FAO’z Rījnl Repriznttiv: “Ɖz pplz r rić ẃn it cmz t culćr, nolij, n naćṛl rzorsz, bt sm v ɖ purist ẃn it cmz t incumz n axes t srṿsz.” S’portñ ɖm wd olso hlp avôd ny pandemics, h sd, az ɖz r most ofn ɖ rzult v ɖ dstrux́n v nećr.

Cattle graze on land recently burned and deforested by farmers near Novo Progresso, Pará state, Brazil. Photograph: André Penner/AP
Catl grêz on land rīsntli brnt n dfoṛstd bî farmrz nir Novo Progresso, Pará stet, Bṛzil. Foṭgraf: André Penner/AP

“Īvn undr sīj fṛm Covid-19 n a frîṭnñ rîz in inveźnz fṛm ǎtsîdrz, w rmen ɖ wnz hu cn stop ɖ dstrux́n v ǎr forists n ɖer bîoḍvrs treźrz,” sd José Gregorio Diaz Mirabal, indijṇs līdr v an umbreḷgrūp, ɖ Coorḍnetr v ɖ Indijṇs Orġnîześnz v ɖ Aṃzn Besn. H sd ɖ rport’s evidns s’ports hiz cōl fr clîṃtfundz t g d’recli t indijṇs pplz n nt guvnmnts vulnṛbl t c’rupśn.

Ɖ rport faund ɖ bst foristpṛtx́n wz pṛvîdd bî pplz wɖ c’lectiv līgl tîtlz t ɖer landz. A 12-yir studi in ɖ B’livịn, Bṛziłn, n Clumbịn Aṃzn faund dfoṛsteśnrets in sć teritriz wr onli wn haf t wn-ʈrd v ɖoz in uɖr similr forists. Īvn ɖo indijṇs teritriz cuvr 28% v ɖ Aṃzn Besn, ɖe onli jeṇretd 2.6% v ɖ rījn’z carbn imiśnz, ɖ rport sd.

Indijṇs pplz okpî 400m hectares v land in ɖ rījn, bt ɖr z no līgl recgniśn v ɖer proṗtirîts in a ʈrd v ɖs eria. “Ẃl ɖ impact v gaṛntiyñ teńrs’kṛti z gret, ɖ cost z vri lo,” ɖ rport sd, nīdñ les ɖn $45 p’ hecter fr ɖ mapñ, ngośieśn n līgl wrc rqîrd.

Ɖ rport sd it wd cost mni tîmz mor t privnt carbn imiśnz fṛm fosilfyl brnñ yzñ carbncapćr n storij tecnoḷji on pǎrplants. Ɖ grantñ v landrîts t indijṇs ppl hz incrist ovr ɖ last 20 yirz, Cunñm sd, bt hz sloud dǎn in rīsnt yirz.

Peyñ indijṇs n trîbl cḿṇtiz fr ɖ invîrnmntl srṿsz v ɖer teritriz hz rdyst dfoṛsteśn in cuntriz includñ Eqdor, Mx̣co, n P’ru. Berdegué sd sć programz cd atract hundṛdz v miłnz v dolrz p’ yir fṛm inṭnaśnl sorsz.

Ɖ nīd fr pṛtx́n z rjnt, ɖ rport sd, wɖ ańl dfoṛsteśnrets in Bṛzil’z indijṇs teritriz rîzñ fṛm 10,000 hecterz in 2017 t 43,000 hecterz in 2019. In Jańri, indijṇs līdrz rjd ɖ inṭnaśnl criminl cort t invstget Bṛzil’z prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro, ovr hiz dsmantlñ v invîrnmntl poḷsiz n vạleśnz v indijṇs rîts.

Elsẃr, ɖ eria v larj intact forists in indijṇs teritriz hz fōḷn btwn 2000 n 2016, wɖ 59% lost in Paṛḡî, 42% in Nic̣rağa, 30% in Hondyṛs n 20% in B’livia. Mînñ n ôl cnseśnz nǎ oṿle olmst a qortr v ɖ land in Aṃzn besn indijṇs n trîbl teritriz, ɖ rport sd.



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Fṛm Đ Gardịn │ The vagina dialogues: 33-metre artwork draws far right’s ire in Brazil

Artist Juliana Notari installed the artwork, entitled Diva, in rural art park in Pernambuco, Brazil. Photograph: Juliana Notari
Artist Juliana Notari instōld ɖ artwrc, intîtld Dīva, in rṛl artparc in Pernambuco, Bṛzil. Foṭgraf: Juliana Notari

Fṛm Đ Gardịn: Ɖ vjîna daylogz: 33-mītr artwrc drwz far rît’s îr in Bṛzil

(Transcription of a Guardian article of 3 January 2021)

Juliana Notari’z hilsîd sculpćr sparcs claś btwn Bolsonaro-s’portñ rît n left-wñ culćṛl cḿṇti

Tom Filips, Rio de Janeiro, 3 Jańri 2021

A 33-mītr riinforst concrīt vjîna hz sparct a Bolsonarịn baclaś in Bṛzil, wɖ s’portrz v ɖ cuntri’z far-rît prezidnt claśñ wɖ left-wñ art admîrrz ovr ɖ insṭleśn.

Ɖ hand-md sculpćr, intîtld Dīva, wz unveild bî viźl artist Juliana Notari on Saṭde at a rṛl artparc on ɖ grǎndz v a formr śŭgrmil in Pernambuco, wn v Bṛzil’z most culćṛli vîbṛnt stets.

In a Fes-bc post, Notari sd ɖ scarlit hilsîd vulva wz intndd t “qsćn ɖ rleśnśp btwn nećr n culćr in ǎr faḷsntric n anʈṛṗsntric wstn ssayti” n pṛvoc dbet ovr ɖ “probḷṃtîześn v jndr”.

“Nawdez ɖz iśuz hv bcm incrisñli rjnt,” ɖ artist add in ẃt apird partli t b a refṛns t ɖ incrisñli intolṛnt clîṃt in Jair Bolsonaro’z Bṛzil.

Ɖt coment wz imīɉtli bòrn ǎt bî ɖ angri n ofn obsin riax́nz t Notari’z art, az ʈǎzndz v critics – mni sīmñli Bolsonaro s’portrz – fludd ɖ artist’s Fes-bc pej wɖ ɖer îr. “Hu d y leftiz ʈnc y’r fūlñ? Apart fṛm ysfl idịts on ɖ left, v cors,” wn v ɖ mor rstrend dtractrz rout.

Bolsonaro’z YS-best p’liticl gŭru, ɖ pṛfeśnl p’leṃsist Olavo de Carvalho, weid in wɖ a custmṛli fǎl-mǎɖd twīt.

Mni rspondd mor poztivli t Notari’z rezin-cuvrd sculpćr, ẃć tc 11 munʈs t bild. “Ɖr’z a lot t ʈnc abt in ɖs wrc,” twītd ɖ seḷbretd tranz cartūnist Laerte Coutinho.

Anɖr fan rout: “I luvd it! An intiṃt part v s xpozd wɖ sć byti. W nīd mor sć wrcs ɖt eḷvet feṃnizm n its ńuansz.”

Kleber Mendonça Filho, a film d’rectr fṛm Pernambuco, prezd Notari fr rspondñ t sć a cnsrvtiv momnt in Bṛziłn hisṭri wɖ a jîgantic vjîna. “Ɖ riax́nz t yr wrc r a mirr [v ssayti], a s’xes,” h twītd.

Sins tecñ ofis in 2019, Bolsonaro hz rpitidli mlînd culćr, pentñ artists – mni v hūm opoz hiz guvnmnt – az dec̣dnt spunjrz hu milc public fundz t pédl coḿnist garbij. A s’xeśn v rnǎnd artists daid last yir, mni fṛm Covid-19, n Bolsonaro rspondd wɖ sîḷns.



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Fṛm Đ Gardịn: Brazil’s President Bolsonaro must ‘drastically change course’ on Covid-19, says The Lancet

Brazil’s President Jair Bolsonaro waves after a meeting at the Ministry of Defense headquarters in Brasilia on Friday. Photograph: Ueslei Marcelino/Reuters
Bṛzil’z Prezidnt Jair Bolsonaro wevz aftr a mītñ at ɖ Miṇstri v Dfns hedqortrz in Bṛziła on Frîde. Foṭgraf: Ueslei Marcelino/Rôtrz

Bṛzil’z Prezidnt Bolsonaro mst ‘drasticli ćenj cors’ on Covid-19, sz Ɖ Lansit

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on 9 May 2020)

Britiś medicl jrnl’z edtorịl sz ɖ Bṛziłn prezidnt’s disrigard fr locdǎn meźrz z daṃjñ

Rôtrz, Saṭde, 9 Me 2020

Ɖ  bigist ʈret t Bṛzil’z abiḷti t s’xesf̣li combat ɖ spred v ɖ c’roṇvîṛs n tacl ɖ unfoldñ public-hlʈ crîsis z ɖ cuntri’z prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro, acordñ t ɖ Britiś medicl jrnl Ɖ Lansit.

In an edtorịl, Ɖ Lansit sd hiz disrigard fr n flǎtñ v locdǎn meźrz wz sǒwñ cnfyźn acrs Bṛzil, ẃć rportd a record numbr v Covid-19 deʈs on Frîde, n z fast imrjñ az wn v ɖ wrld’z c’roṇvîṛs hotspots.

Bṛzil’z hlʈmiṇstri on Frîde rejistrd 10,222 ny cnfrmd cesz v ɖ c’roṇvîṛs n 751 rletd deʈs, bìtñ ɖ prīvịs record v 615. Ɖt bròt ɖ totl v cnfrmd cesz in Bṛzil t 145,328 n deʈs t 9,897, ɖ most dedli ǎtbrec in an imrjñ-marcit neśn.

Bolsonaro, a formr armicaptin, z bcmñ incrisñli hamstruñ bî p’liticl crîsis folowñ hiz rīsnt sacñ v popylr hlʈministr Luiz Henrique Mandetta n ɖ reẓgneśn v justisministr Sergio Moro, Ɖ Lansit sd.

“Ɖ ćalinj z ultiṃtli p’liticl, rqîrñ cntinẏs ingejmnt bî Bṛziłn ssayti az a hol. Bṛzil az a cuntri mst cm tgɖr t gv a clir ansr t ɖ ‘So ẃt?’ bî its Prezidnt. H nīdz t drasticli ćenj cors or mst b ɖ nxt t g,” ɖ edtorịl sd.

In rspons t a jrṇlist’s qsćn last wīc abt ɖ record numbr v deʈs fṛm c’roṇvîṛs, Bolsonaro sd: “So ẃt? I’m sori, bt ẃt d y wont m t d?”

Bolsonaro’z pres-ofis dclînd t coment on ɖ Lansit edtorịl. On Frîde, ɖ prezidnt sd h pland t hv 30 frendz ovr t ɖ preẓdnśl palis fr a barḅk. Lêtr in ɖ de, h joct ɖt h me xtnd ɖ invteśn t ʈǎzndz mor, includñ p’liticl s’portrz n membrz v ɖ pres.

A rport bî Impirịl Colij Lundn publiśt on Frîde śoud ɖt “ɖ eṗdemic z nt yt cntrold n wl cntiny t gro” in Bṛzil, in starc contrast t parts v Yṛp n Eźa, ẃr inforst locdǎnz hv hd s’xes.

“Ẃl ɖ Bṛziłn eṗdemic z stl reḷtivli nesnt on a naśnl scel, ǎr rzults sjst ɖt frɖr ax́n z nīdd t limit spred n privnt hlʈsistm oṿlod,” ɖ Impirịl Colij rport sd.

In its edtorịl, Ɖ Lansit notd ćaḷnjz Bṛzil fest. Abt 13 miłn Bṛziłnz liv in śantitǎn “fvelaz”, ẃr hîjīnrec̣mndeśnz n fizicl distnsñ r nir imposbl t folo.

Ɖ cuntri’z indijṇs popyleśn wz olso undr “svir ʈret” īvn bfr ɖ Covid-19 ǎtbrec dy t ɖ guvnmnt trnñ a blînd î t or īvn incuṛjñ ilīgl mînñ n logñ in ɖ Aṃzn renforist.

“Ɖz logrz n mainrz nǎ risc brññ Covid-19 t rmot popyleśnz,” it sd.

Most v Bṛzil’z 27 stet n district guvnmnts r tecñ ɖ ʈret v ɖ vîṛs mor sirịsli ɖn Bolsonaro.

On Frîde, ɖ guvnmnt v São Paulo, Bṛzil’z most popyḷs stet, xtndd manḍtri qoṛntīn-ordrz ʈru t 31 Me. Ɖe hd bn scedyld t xpîr on 11 Me.

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Gardịn: ‘This moment is leaving a mark on me’: framing Rio under Covid-19’s shadow

The funeral of Elizabeth Baez, an 82-year-old woman who died after contracting Covid-19, takes place in Rio de Janeiro in the presence of her only son, Henrique. All photographs by Nicoló Lanfranchi
Ɖ fynṛl v Iliẓbʈ Baez, an 82-yir-old wmn hu daid aftr cntractñ Covid-19, tecs ples in Rio de Janeiro in ɖ prezns v hr onli sun, Henrique. Ol foṭgrafs bî Nicoló Lanfranchi

‘Ɖs momnt z līvñ a marc on m’: fremñ Rio undr Covid-19’z śado

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on 30 April 2020)

Nicoló Lanfranchi arîvd in Bṛzil t mc a film abt tṛdiśnl meḍsin n endd p ćartñ a traɉdi ɖt aqîrd a dīpli prsnl dmnśn

Dóm Filips in Rio de Janeiro

Ʈrzde, 30 Epril 2020

Foṭgrafñ a fynṛl z nvr īzi, no matr hǎ pṛfeśnl ɖ ftogṛfr, n īvn mor so amd a pandemic. Bt fr Nicoló Lanfranchi, capćrñ ɖ berịl v Covid-19 victim Iliẓbʈ Baez, 82, ẃć tc ples ɖs munʈ at ɖ São João Batista seṃtri in Rio de Janeiro, wz ispeṣ́li dificlt.

Az h foṭgraft ɖ grevdigrz in pṛtctiv cloɖñ wɖ Iliẓbʈ’z sun Henrique, 49, ɖ onli mōrnr alaud, woćñ on fṛm bhnd a masc, Lanfranchi ʈt v hiz ǒn faɖr, Piero. At 72, Piero wz in intnsiv cer wɖ Covid-19 in a hospitl in Voghera, in Lomḅdi, norɖn Iṭli – wn v ɖ wrst-afctd plesz on Rʈ.

“I imajind mslf in ɖ sem sićueśn, n I startd fesñ ɖs posbiḷti n I wz riyli tućt,” h sz. Aftr ɖ fynṛl, Lanfranchi tld Baez abt hiz faɖr. Baez ʈanct him fr capćrñ hiz muɖr’z lonli berịl – n fr śẹrñ hiz ǒn stori.

Ɖt Bṛziłnz – a soṣ́bl, gṛgerịs ppl – r so opn t brīf yt pṛfǎnd hymn inṭax́nz lîc ɖs z jst wn v ɖ mni rīznz Itałn ftogṛfr n film-mcr Lanfranchi hz rtrnd hir evri yir fr ɖ past tū decedz. Ɖ uɖr z t tec picćrz.
“It z a hyj lîfscūl fr m. I hv t b foc̣st, it z denjṛs, nwn cn hlp m n I fīl rsponsbiḷti t brñ bac iṃjz n ɖ storiz,” h sz. “It clīnz mî mînd.”
Foṭgraf: Nicoló Lanfranchi/Ɖ Gardịn

Born in Milan n best in Brlin, Lanfranchi hz wrct az a frīlans ftogṛfr in portrit, travl, nyz, n fotojrṇlizm. H prifŕz t spend tîm on asînmnts; h wns spent ʈri wīcs on bōrd ɖ Aqerịs śip az it reskd refyjīz arnd ɖ Mediṭreńn fr a siriz v Gardịn dspaćz.

C’roṇvîṛs hz bn wn v ɖ tufist subjicts t cuvr. “I’v bn wurid abt ɖ vîṛs,” h sz. “Mî faɖr wz on mî mînd.”

Lanfranchi frst cem t Bṛzil in 2000 bcz h pracṭsz ɖ Afro-Bṛziłn art v capoeira n cem t b “baptîzd” in an iniśieśn. Orijiṇli dveḷpt bî inslevd Africn ppl az a marśl art dsgîzd az a dans, capoeira z an xampl v hǎ ɖs vast, vẹrid cuntri abzorbz culćrz.

“Uɖr ppl cōl ɖs a mltñpot. It z mor ɖ sincṛtizm, ɖ cpaṣti v an organic form t abzorb difṛnt ʈñz,” sz Lanfranchi.
People waiting at a bus station in Rio Centro. Photograph: Nicoló Lanfranchi/The Guardian
Ppl wêtñ at a bușteśn in Rio Centro. Foṭgraf: Nicoló Lanfranchi/Ɖ Gardịn

In 2012 h foṭgraft wîldcat mainrz in ɖ jungl, in 2014 a socrtrṇmnt in a prizn in João Pessoa. In 2015 Bṛzil sufrd ɖ wrst invîrnmntl ctastṛfi in its hisṭri ẃn a teilñzdam nir Mariana c’lapst, cilñ 19 ppl n sndñ miłnz v lītrz v mînñwest slūsñ dǎn ɖ Rivr Doce t ɖ sì.

Lanfranchi wrct wɖ Grīnpīs, Amṇsti, Vaṇti Fer n ivnć̣li s’plaid dṛmatic iṃjz fr a Gardịn stori ɖt Davilson Brasileiro n I rout abt an invstgeśn intu ɖ dzastr’z cōzz bî fedṛl proṣktrz.

In Jańri 2019, Lanfranchi n I hd jst left ɖ Raposa Serra do Sol indijṇs rzrv in Bṛzil’z far norʈ ẃn anɖr teilñzdam c’lapst, in Brumadinho in ɖ sem stet v Minas Gerais, cilñ hundṛdz. At ɖ dzastr zon, Lanfranchi’z psistns, hiz abiḷti t ćarm n cjol, n hiz scil at cmpozñ foṭgrafs in ceos rendrd memṛbl iṃjz v ɖ dedli, avôḍbl traɉdi.

H arîvd in Rio on 3 Marć t mc a śort film abt tṛdiśnl meḍsin in Bṛzil’z semi-arid intirịr, bt ɖ pandemic ślvd ɖ project. Îṣletñ in Rio’z bīćsîd Ipanema nebrhd, Lanfranchi dscuvrd ɖt ɖ gret cmpozr Tom Jobim hd ritn mni v hiz bossa nova clasics in an apartmnt in hiz bildñ, includñ Chega de Saudade (Inuf v Loññ), most feṃsli rcordd bî João Gilberto.

Ɖt nstalja infctd Lanfranchi n h sòt t tec fotoz ɖt capćrd tîm standñ stl n ɖ firfl meḷnc̣li v a siti ẃr lîf wz on hold.
H bòt N95 mascs, faund a drîvr hu ń ɖ siti n bgan wrcñ ǎt hǎ t foṭgraf ɖ pandemic ẃn so mni sićueśnz – hlʈsntrz n hospitlwordz – wr in’xesbl. H clīnd hiz iqipmnt wɖ alc̣hol jél, n ćenjd n wośt hiz cloɖz ć tîm h got hom.

Copacabana beach, empty during the coronavirus outbreak. Photograph: Nicoló Lanfranchi/The Guardian
Copacabana bīć, emti jrñ ɖ c’roṇvîṛs ǎtbrec. Foṭgraf: Nicoló Lanfranchi/Ɖ Gardịn

Yzñ a dron wrct fr foṭgrafñ emti bīćz n an upscel membrz’ club fr a stori on hǎ c’roṇvîṛs spred amñ its priṿlijd membrz. H olso yzd it t capćr faṃliz on ɖer balc̣niz.

H pt ɖ dron dǎn t capćr fūd distṛbyśn in ɖ Siti v God fvela, strītsaṇteśn in nirbî Niterói, n ppl ignorñ sośl distnsñ advîs acrs Rio.

Sm dd ɖs fṛm śir ic̣nomic nīd, uɖrz dd’nt tec ɖ pandemic sirịsli. Ɖ cuntri’z far-rît prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro, dsmist c’roṇvîṛs az “a litl flu” n argyd ɖt pṛtctñ ɖ icoṇmi wz mor importnt ɖn sośl distnsñ īvn az cnfrmd c’roṇvîṛs cesz n deʈs rouz.

In City of God, a banner from a local group urges people to stay at home. Photograph: Nicoló Lanfranchi/The Guardian
In Siti v God, a banr fṛm a locl grūp rjz ppl t ste at hom. Foṭgraf: Nicoló Lanfranchi/Ɖ Gardịn

Lanfranchi wz dsmeid t si Bṛziłn soḷdaṛti c’rodd bî fec nyz n far-rît popylizm. “I flt hǎ sic ɖ cuntri z, ppl r s’portñ a prezidnt hu opnli dz nt cer abt ɖ hlʈ v ɖ popyleśn,” h sz.

A man in Rio Centro walks next to a poster that says: ‘Bankers, respect the lives of workers and customers, coronavirus kills.’ Photograph: Nicoló Lanfranchi/The Guardian
A man in Rio Centro wōcs nxt t a postr ɖt sz: ‘Bancrz, rspct ɖ lîvz v wrcrz n custmrz, c’roṇvîṛs cilz.’ Foṭgraf: Nicoló Lanfranchi/Ɖ Gardịn

Ɖs discnct reẓnetd az hiz faɖr’z hlʈ wrsnd. Piero Lanfranchi hd gn t hospitl t gt a plastr rmuvd bt còt Covid-19. Faɖr n sun cḿṇcetd via txt, untl ɖ tîm cem fr a plastic box t b pt ovr Piero’z hed t hlp him briɖ n h snt a last mesij.

Rio during the pandemic. Photograph: Nicoló Lanfranchi
Rio jrñ ɖ pandemic. Foṭgraf: Nicoló Lanfranchi/Ɖ Gardịn

Lanfranchi cd nt hv sìn hiz faɖr īvn f hd bn ebl t gt a flît bac t Iṭli. Hospitlvizitrz r nt alaud, ɖr r rodblocs in Lomḅdi. On Saṭde h got ɖ nyz: dspt ɖ plastic box, hiz faɖr hd daid.

“H wz alon, ɖs z ɖ wrst ʈñ, n smʈñ I wd’nt wś on enbdi,” sz Lanfranchi, tirz cracñ hiz vôs.
Nǎ ɖ onli ʈñ h cn ʈnc t d z plan a ny asînmnt.
“Ɖs z a historicl momnt, it z līvñ a marc on m, n in a srtn we I ʈnc abt ɖ uɖr faṃliz afctd wɖ ɖs, n I am wɖ ɖm,” h sz. “I d nt wont t b bìtn bî ɖ vîṛs.”

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Gardịn: Lula: Bolsonaro leading Brazil ‘to slaughterhouse’ over Covid-19

Gravediggers wearing protective suits carry the coffin of 68-year-old Natalina Cardoso Bandeira, who died after contracting coronavirus. Photograph: Bruno Kelly/Reuters
Grevdigrz wẹrñ pṛtctiv sūts cari ɖ cofin v 68-yir-old Natalina Cardoso Bandeira, hu daid aftr cntractñ c’roṇvîṛs. Foṭgraf: Brūno Ćeli/Rôtrz
Lula: Bolsonaro līdñ Bṛzil ‘t slōtrhǎs’ ovr Covid-19

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on 17 April 2020)

Formr prezidnt brandz cuṛnt līdr a ‘trogḷdît’ hu śd b rmuvd fṛm ofis

Tom Filips in Rio de Janeiro. 17 Epril 2020

Jair Bolsonaro z līdñ Bṛziłnz “t ɖ slōtrhǎs” wɖ hiz irisponsbl hanḍlñ v c’roṇvîṛs, ɖ cuntri’s formr prezidnt Inácio Lula da Silva hz sd.

In an impaśnd inṭvy wɖ ɖ Gardịn – ẃć cem az Bṛzil’z Covid-19 deʈtol hit 1,924 – Lula sd ɖt bî unḍmainñ sośl distnsñ n dfeṇstretñ hiz ǒn hlʈministr, Bṛzil’z “trogḷdît” līdr risct rpitñ ɖ devstetñ sīnz pleyñ ǎt in Eqdor ẃr faṃliz hv hd t dump ɖer luvd wnz’ corpsz in ɖ strīts.

“Unforćṇtli I fir Bṛzil z gwñ t sufr a gret dīl bcz v Bolsonaro’z reclisnis … I fir ɖt f ɖs groz Bṛzil cd si sm cesz lîc ɖoz hrific, monstṛs iṃjz w sw in Guayaquil,” sd ɖ 74-yir-old leftist.

“W c’nt jst wont t topl a prezidnt bcz w d’nt lîc him,” Lula admitd. “[Bt] f Bolsonaro cntinyz t cmit crîmz v rsponsbiḷti … [n] trayñ t līd ssayti t ɖ slōtrhǎs – ẃć z ẃt h z dwñ – I ʈnc ɖ insttyśnz wl nīd t fînd a we v sortñ Bolsonaro ǎt. N ɖt wl mīn y’l nīd t hv an impićmnt.”

Bolsonaro – a prǎdli hoṃfobic formr armicaptin olrdi dspîzd bî pṛgresiv Bṛziłnz fr hiz hostiḷti t ɖ invîrnmnt, indijṇs rîts n ɖ arts, az wel az hiz alejd lincs t Rio’z mafia – hz ełnetd miłnz mor wɖ hiz dsmisiv stans twdz ɖ c’roṇvîṛs, ẃć h b’litlz az mīdia “hstiria” n a “bit v a cold”.

Sins ɖ Wrld Hlʈ Orġnîześn dclerd ɖ pandemic on 11 Marć, Bṛzil’z prezidnt hz rpitidli ʈumd hiz nǒz at sośl distnsñ, frst bî egñ on n atndñ pro-Bolsonaro protests n ɖen wɖ a siriz v pṛvoc̣tiv vizits t bec̣riz, sūṗmarcits n farṃsiz. Jrñ wn uņesṣri ǎtñ Bolsonaro dclerd: “Nwn wl hindr mî rît t cm n g.”

In Marć ɖ rîtwñ popylist īvn sjstd Bṛziłnz nīd nt wuri abt Covid-19 sins ɖe cd beɖ in xcrimnt “n nʈñ hapnz”.

Sć muvz pt Bolsonaro at logrhedz wɖ hiz ǒn hlʈministr, Luiz Henrique Mandetta, a doctr-trnd-poḷtiśn hu wz fîrd on Ʈrzde aftr ćaḷnjñ ɖ prezidnt’s bhevyr.

Mnẃl Bolsonaro’z poḷtiśn sun, Eduardo, hz tecn ɖ recñbōl t tîz wɖ Bṛzil’z most importnt tredpartnr, Ćîna, bî akzñ its Coḿnist parti līdrz v biyñ t blem fr ɖ c’roṇvîṛs crîsis.

Bolsonaro’z ax́nz hv sparct nîtli pot-baññ protests in sitiz p n dǎn ɖ cuntri n drwn scorn fṛm acrs ɖ p’liticl spectṛm.

“C’roṇvîṛs mst b lafñ its hed of,” Eliane Cantanhêde, a coḷmnist fr ɖ cnsrvtiv Estado de São Paulo nyzpepr, rout v Bolsonaro’z antics ɖs wīc.

Ɖ rîtwñ guvnr v Bṛzil’z most popyḷs stet, São Paulo, hz dclerd ɖ cuntri at wor wɖ bʈ ɖ c’roṇvîṛs n ɖ “Bolsonaro-vîṛs”.

Lula da Silva, the former president of Brazil. Photograph: Andre Lucas/The Guardian
Lŭla d’Silva, ɖ formr prezidnt v Bṛzil. Foṭgraf: Andre Lūc̣s/Ɖ Gardịn

Lula, hu guvnd fṛm 2003 untl 2010, clemd ɖt Bolsonaro’z “gṛtesc” ax́nz wr indenjrñ lîvz bî ignorñ distnsñgîdlînz pt in ples bî Bṛzil’z ǒn hlʈmiṇstri.“It’s naćṛl ɖt a porśn v ssayti dz’nt unḍstand ɖ nīd t ste at hom or hǎ sirịs ɖs z – ispeṣ́li ẃn ɖ prezidnt v ɖ rpublic z a trogḷdît hu sz it’s jst a litl flu,” Lula sd bî vidiocōl fṛm ɖ Bṛziłn siti v São Bernardo do Campo, ẃr h z in slf-îṣleśn aftr rtrnñ fṛm a tur v Yṛp.

“Ɖ truʈ z Bolsonaro dz’nt ʈnc abt ɖ impact hiz dstructiv acts hv on ssayti. H’z reclis.”Bolsonaro sz hiz opziśn t distnsñ stemz fṛm hiz dzîr t pṛtct Bṛzil’z most vulnṛbl sitiznz n ɖer jobz.

Aftr sacñ hiz hlʈministr, Bolsonaro clemd t b fîtñ fr “ɖ loñ-suf̣rñ Bṛziłn ppl” n wornd c’roṇvîṛs ʈretnd t bcm “a veriṭbl mìtgrîndr v jobz”.

“At no pônt hz ɖ guvnmnt abandnd ɖ nīdiist … Ɖ impoṿriśt masz canot ste stuc p at hom,” Bolsonaro sd. “I nǒ … lîf z prîslis. Bt ɖ icoṇmi n jobz mst rtrn t norml.”

Lula, hu wz born intu rṛl poṿti n wún inṭnaśnl plōdits fr hiz fît agnst hungr, scoft at ɖ îdīa Bolsonaro wz a ćampịn v ɖ pur.

“Bolsonaro z onli inṭrestd in himslf, hiz cidz, sm priti cnsrvtiv jenṛlz n hiz paṛmilitri frendz,” h clemd, in refṛns t loñstandñ aḷgeśnz ovr ɖ Bṛziłn prezidnt’s faṃlitîz t ɖ Rio de Janeiro mafia.

“H dz’nt spīc t ssayti. Bolsonaro dz’nt hv irz t lisn. H jst hz a mǎʈ t tōc nonsns.”

Ẃl Bṛzil’z formr prezidnt clemd impićmnt wz an opśn, h cnsidd ɖr wz nt cuṛntli s’port fr ɖt in ɖ cuntri’z congres, az ɖr wz ẃn hiz leftwñ s’xesr Dilma Rousseff wz rmuvd fṛm ofis in 2016.

H sd mni rîtwñ poḷtiśnz ʈt it wîzr t alǎ Bolsonaro t cntiny saḅtājñ hiz ćansz v riilex́n in 2022 ʈru hiz ǒn incompitns – bfr ilectñ anɖr prezidnt fṛm ɖ rît.

Lula, hu wz sîdlînd fṛm 2018’z ilex́n aftr biyñ jeld on dspytd c’rupśnćarjz, signld h wd nt b ɖ leftwñ canddet in ɖt contest.

Workers in protective gear bury a person alongside rows of freshly dug graves at the Vila Formosa cemetery in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Photograph: André Penner/AP
Wrcrz in pṛtctiv gir beri a prsn alñsd roz v freśli dug grevz at ɖ Vila Formosa seṃtri in São Paulo, Bṛzil. Foṭgraf: Andre Penr/AP

“I’v lost mî p’liticl rîts so I’m nt tōcñ abt mslf,” sd Lula, hu wz rlist in Nvmbr 2019 fṛm 580 dez in prizn aftr a s’prīm-cort rūlñ.“Bt I’l tel y smʈñ, y cn b srtn ɖ left wl b guṿnñ Bṛzil agn aftr 2022. W d’nt nīd t tōc abt hu ɖ canddet z rît nǎ. Bt w wl vot fr smwn hu z cmitd t hymn rîts n rspcts ɖm, hu rspcts invîrnmntl pṛtx́n, hu rspcts ɖ Aṃzn … hu rspcts blacs n ɖ indijṇs. W’r gwñ t ilect smwn hu z cmitd t ɖ pur v ɖs cuntri.”

Obzrvrz v Bṛziłn poḷtics r les śr Bolsonaro z toṭli finiśt – or ɖt ɖ left z wel pziśnd t rples him. Sm b’liv Bolsonaro – wn v jst for wrldlīdrz stl dǎnpleyñ c’roṇvîṛs alñsd ɖ oʈoṛterịn prezidnts v Nic̣rağa, Beḷrŭs n Trcmenistan – hz obliṭretd hiz ćansz v a secnd trm wɖ hiz rspons t ɖ crîsis.

Bt Thomas Traumann, a p’liticl comntetr n cḿṇceśnzministr undr Rousseff, sd sć srtnti wz preṃtyr: “Ɖr r tū snć̣riz t g untl 2022.”

Traumann sd it wz clir Bolsonaro hd svirli wìcnd himslf – bt so far rîtwñ poḷtiśnz sć az ɖ guvnrz v Rio de Janeiro n São Paulo apird t b capiṭlîzñ on Bolsonaro’z blundrz ɖ most.

Jair Bolsonaro, right, with Luiz Henrique Mandetta, whom he has fired as health minister. Photograph: Adriano Machado/Reuters
Jair Bolsonaro, rît, wɖ Luiz Henrique Mandetta, hūm h hz fîrd az hlʈministr. Foṭgraf: Adriano Machado/Rôtrz

N ultiṃtli Bṛzil wz hrtlñ intu sć an unpridictbl n ptnṣ́li tymulćs fy wīcs ɖt it wz imposbl t nǒ ẃt ɖ p’liticl fōlǎt mt b.

“W nǒ Bolsonaro wl cm ǎt v ɖs wìcr. W nǒ hiz mstecs wl nt b fgivn,” Traumann sd. Hǎ ɖ p’liticl ćips wd fōl aftr ɖt wz enwn’z ges, Traumann add, lîc̣nñ Bṛzil’z pridic̣mnt t ɖ start v a rolrcǒstr rîd.

“Ol w nǒ z ɖt mni lūps lî ahd … W r muvñ intu an uņoun wrld … W r sêlñ in ɖ darcnis.”

Lula sd h wz srtn v wn ʈñ: ɖt at a momnt v naśnl crîsis, Bṛzil nīdd a līdr ceṗbl v ynîtñ its 211 miłn sitiznz.

“A prezidnt śd b lîc ɖ cnductr v an orcistra,” h sd. “Ɖ probḷm z ɖt ǎr cnductr nz nʈñ abt ḿzic, c’nt rīd a scor n dz’nt īvn nǒ hǎ ɖ batnz wrc.

“H’z trayñ t ple clasicl ḿzic wɖ ɖ instṛmnts y yz t ple samba. H’z trnd hiz orcistra intu a madnis – a Tǎr v Bebl,” Lula sd. “H dz’nt nǒ ẃt h’z dwñ in ɖ preẓdnśl palis … Nt īvn Trump tecs him sirịsli.”

Instroduction to Ñspel