Tag Archives: Observer

Fṛm Đ Gardịn: The Observer view on care home deaths being an indictment of our society

Nurses wearing protective gear rush out of a care home’s “red zone” for people sick with coronavirus. Photograph: Frank Augstein/AP
Nrsz wẹrñ pṛtctiv gir ruś ǎt v a cerhom’z “red zon” fr ppl sic wɖ c’roṇvîṛs. Foṭgraf: Franc Ōgstīn/AP

Ɖ Obzrvr vy on cerhom deʈs biyñ an indîtmnt v ǎr ssayti

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on 3 May 2020)

Unls w proprli fund ǎr cerhomz n ɖer invałbl wrcrz, ɖ śemñ deʈtol wl cntiny t rîz

Súnde, 3 Me 2020

“I  hv nvr ritn so mni deʈnoṭficeśnz in sć a śort tîm,” a cerhom manijr hu lost 23 rezidnts t c’roṇvîṛs in jst tū wīcs tld ɖ Gardịn last munʈ. “Evri membr v staf z lost. Wn de, a rezidnt wz wōcñ arnd wɖ a mîld tmpṛćr. I wnt hom, n ɖ nxt mornñ ɖe wr ded.”

Sm v ɖ hardist-t-hír storiz v ɖs pandemic hv cm fṛm Britn’z cerhomz; v sunz n dōtrz hu hv bn seṗretd fṛm ɖer peṛnts fr wīcs unebl t si ɖm bfr ɖe dî; v staf hu r peid a piṭns fr invałbl, n nǎ lîf-indenjrñ, wrc, struġlñ t cǒp wɖ ɖ scel v ɖ los.

At hiz frst presconfṛns sins hiz rtrn t wrc, Boris Jonsn seḷbretd ɖ fact ɖt Britn z “past ɖ pīc”. Bt ɖr wz litl mnśn v cerhomz, ẃr ɖ picćr z oltgɖr difṛnt. In Ñgḷnd, olmst a ʈrd hv rportd c’roṇvîṛs ǎtbrecs, n yesṭde ɖ prezidnt v ɖ Asośieśn v D’rectrz v Adult Sośl Srṿsz, Jemz Bŭłn, wornd ɖt ɖ sićueśn in cersrṿsz z gtñ wrs. Untl last wīc, cerhom deʈs wr nt īvn includd in ɖ ofiśl deʈtol, bt w lrnt on Tyzde ɖt in Ñgḷnd n Wêlz ɖr hd bn mor ɖn 4,300 deʈs in jst a fortnît, sjstñ ɖt īvn az ɖ hospitl deʈtol hz bn cnsistntli fōlñ, ɖ deʈret in cerhomz cntinyz t axeḷret.

Ɖ hlʈsecṛtri, Mát Hancoc, hz clemd ɖt cerhomz “hv bn a top prîoṛti rît fṛm ɖ start”. Bt ɖ guvnmnt actd far tù lêt t privnt a dîr sićueśn. An importnt part v its pandemic straṭji hz rîtli bn t “śīld” ɖoz most at risc fṛm ɖ vîṛs fṛm xpoźr t it. Bt ɖ big flw in ɖs plan z ɖt sm v ɖ most vulnṛbl r ɖoz oldr ppl n ppl wɖ a dis’biḷti hu rlî on pṛfeśnl cerrz fr intiṃt s’port wɖ evride tascs, in ɖer ǒn homz or in cerhomz. Ɖe simpli canot b śīldd fṛm ɖ ǎtsd wrld. N so it bcmz abṣlutli criticl ɖt ɖoz hu cer fr ɖm r ebl t axes ampl stocs v prsnl pṛtctiv iqipmnt n r reğlrli tstd. Uɖ̇wz, ɖ most vulnṛbl wl b amñ ɖoz pt most at risc v cntractñ ɖ vîṛs.

Proprli pṛtctñ ɖoz livñ in cerhomz n hu yz cersrṿsz in ɖer ǒn homz wd b a l’jisticl ćalinj fr eni guvnmnt. It wd hv rqîrd an imns amǎnt v fōrʈōt n planñ. Nyz ɖt nrsñhomz in ɖ YS n Ostreła r olso fesñ teṛbl deʈtolz śoz ɖt it z nt jst ɖ Britiś guvnmnt ɖt hz md mstecs. Bt ɖ xtrordnri ef̣ts ɖt wnt intu bildñ ɖ Nîtngel hospitlz r a tsṭmnt t ẃt cn b aćivd ẃn smʈñ z md a p’liticl prîoṛti. Ɖt levl v eṇji hz nt bn invstd in pṛtctñ oldr n dsebld ppl hu rlî on pṛfeśnl cersrṿsz.

Īvn az sm cerwrcrz hv md hyj sacṛfîsz t cīp ɖ ppl ɖe lc aftr sef, includñ muvñ intu cerhomz t pṛtct oldr rezidnts n ɖer ǒn ćildṛn, ɖe hv hd t strugl wɖ cmplitli inadiqt levlz v pṛtctiv iqipmnt. Fr wīcs, cerhomz hv strugld t axes tstñ, n ppl hv bn dsćarjd fṛm hospitlz intu cerhomz wɖt biyñ tstd frst. Manijrz rport graṗlñ wɖ dificlt dsiźnz, wɖ litl gîdns fṛm ɖ guvnmnt: d ɖe axpt ny rezidnts hu hv bn in hospitl ẃn ɖe hv nt bn tstd, ptnṣ́li ptñ uɖr rezidnts at risc; d ɖe let reḷtivz in t se gdbî t ɖer luvd wnz; hǎ d ɖe privnt wrcrz mcñ a duzn homvizits a de, hu me b esimṭmatic, spredñ ɖ vîṛs t ɖoz hu r most in denjr fṛm it, ẃn ɖr z’nt inuf pṛtctiv iqipmnt or tsts? N it cn b olmst imposbl fr cerwrcrz, hu r inverịbli lo peid n smtmz on inṣkr contracts, t spīc ǎt abt unsef cndiśnz: fîv cerrz hv rportidli lost ɖer jobz in ɖ past fortnît aftr spīcñ ǎt abt ɖer cnsrnz.

Wɖt rjnt ax́n bî ɖ guvnmnt, ɖr z a risc ɖt ɖ cerhom deʈtol cariz on growñ loñ aftr ɖ infx́nret hz dropt in ɖ cuntri at larj. Ɖ sem levl v imrjnsiplanñ ɖt wz dploid in rleśn t ɖ Nîtngel hospitlz nǎ nīdz t b invstd in avrtñ frɖr cerhom deʈs. Xtra imrjnsifundñ mst b imīɉtli d’rectd twdz ɖ sectr t hlp pṛvîdrz cǒp wɖ xtra costs, includñ ejnsistaf n ɖ cost v pṛtctiv iqipmnt.

Tù mni oldr ppl wl hv uņessṛli lost ɖer livz az a rzult v ɖs pandemic. It z a penfl rmîndr v ɖ ejizm ɖt runz ʈru ǎr ssayti, ɖ we in ẃć ɖ lîvz v ɖoz hu nīd s’port t b ebl t liv r asymd t cǎnt fr a lot les. Fundñ fr sośl cer hz dclînd in ɖ past 10 yirz, īvn az dmand fr cer hz rizn az a rzult v an ejñ popyleśn. Ɖ rzult z ɖt evri de an esṭmetd 1.5 miłn oldr ppl – wn in sevn ovr-65z – g wɖt ɖ hlp ɖe nīd wɖ tascs sć az wośñ, dresñ n ītñ. Mnẃl, tù mni cerwrcrz r nt īvn peid ɖ minimm wej fr scild wrc ɖt cn b imośṇli n fizicli tuf, bt ptnṣ́li so rwordñ, n prîṿt-eqti fînans hz fludd intu Britn’z larjist cerhom ćenz, lodñ ɖm p wɖ unsstenbl levlz v dét az prîṿt fnansịrz sīc t xtract sgnificnt rtrnz fṛm taxpeyr-fundd cer.

So it z śocñ, bt hardli s’prîzñ, ɖt ǎr oldr muɖrz n faɖrz, ānts n unclz, granpeṛnts n frendz hv bn left vulnṛbl t ɖ wrst ifcts v ɖs pandemic. It’s ɖ inevitbl product v livñ in a ssayti ɖt gts its aproć t ejñ so roñ, ẃr ɖoz hu rlî on pṛfeśnl cer r smhǎ sìn az hvñ a dminiśt rît t a fluṛśñ lîf. Ɖ traɉdi unfoldñ in ǎr cerhomz mst śrli b ɖ wec-p cōl ɖt w nīd t ćenj ɖt.

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Gardịn: The Observer view on government failure in the coronavirus crisis

Ɖ ny NHS Nîtñgel hospitl in Lundn wl hv cpaṣti fr 4,000 c’roṇvîṛs peśnts. Foṭgraf: Aṇdolu Ejnsi via Geti Iṃjz
Ɖ ny NHS Nîtñgel hospitl in Lundn wl hv cpaṣti fr 4,000 c’roṇvîṛs peśnts. Foṭgraf: Aṇdolu Ejnsi via Geti Iṃjz
Ɖ Obzrvr vy on guvnmntfełr in ɖ c’roṇvîṛs crîsis

(Transcription of an article published in the Observer on 29 March 2020)

A pandemic wz olwz gwñ t pt ɖ hlʈsistm undr stren, bt Britn wz wǒf̣li unredi

Súnde, 29 Marć 2020

Last wīc bròt ɖ trajic nyz v ɖ frst medicl pṛfeśnlz t fōl victim t Britn’z c’roṇvîṛs eṗdemic. Dr. Hbīb Zaīdi wz a cḿṇti JP in Esix hu daid fṛm sspctd Covid-19 simtmz last Wenzde. Dr. Adil El Tîar wz a Lundn-best orgntransplant srjn hu b’livd h cntractd ɖ ilnis ẃl wrcñ in hospitlz in ɖ Wst Midḷndz. Ɖr wl vri lîcli b mor doctrz, nrsz n s’portstaf hu olso lūz ɖer lîvz az a rzult v ɖer criticl wrc in trītñ peśnts wɖ ɖ vîṛs. It z an apōlñ rmîndr ɖt, evri de, NHS n sośl-cer staf r ptñ ɖer ǒn livz at risc in ordr t sev ɖ lîvz v uɖrz.

In rīsnt dez, ɖ ef̣t t ramp p ɖ NHS’z criticl-cer cpaṣti hz bn increḍbl. Wrc z wel undr we t bild a ny hospitl at Lundn’z Xel sntr: fṛm nxt wīc, NHS Nîtñgel wl pṛvîd 500 bedz, wɖ spes t xpand t 4,000; an increḍbl 27-fold incris in ɖ capitl’z criticl-cer bedz. Similr hospitl xpanśnprogramz r gtñ undr we in Brmñm n Manćestr.

It wl, hvr, tec an imns hymn ef̣t fṛm doctrz, nrsz n s’portstaf t cīp ɖ NHS on its fīt. Medicl pṛfeśnlz wl b draftd in fṛm arnd ɖ cuntri t staf ɖz xtra bedz; mni wl liv on sait n wrc fizicli n imośṇli xōstñ śifts in bérli tolṛbl cndiśnz. P n dǎn ɖ cuntri, doctrz n nrsz hv sd gdbî t ɖer nirist n dirist, muvñ ǎt v ɖer faṃlihomz, or r sndñ ćildṛn t liv wɖ reḷtivz, ptnṣ́li fr munʈs, in ordr t avôd ptñ ɖm at risc. It z utrli ō-inspîrñ, n w s’lūt ɖer dedceśn t srvis. It wl nt b fgotn.

Bt ɖ dedceśn v medicl pṛfeśnlz contrasts śarpli wɖ ɖ lac v guvnmntpriperidnis – fr xampl in pṛkrñ xtra stocs v vnṭletrz, prsnl pṛtctiv iqipmnt (PPI) n vîṛs-tstñ cits. It śd hv bn clir fṛm ɖ evidns cmñ ǎt v Ćîna fṛm Febrri onẉdz ɖt ɖ riscs v a globl pandemic, rqîrñ sgnificnt adiśnl medicl rzorsz, wr vri hî indd.

A hlʈsistm drivn t ɖ abṣlut limits v its cpaṣti wl inevitbli b les rziłnt

Yt it wz onli tū wīcs ago ɖt ɖ hlʈministr, Mát Hancoc, iśùd a public cōl fr cumṗniz t contact ɖ guvnmnt n asist in vnṭletrpṛdux́n. Sins ɖen, xtrimli wuriyñ dītelz hv imrjd ɖt sjst ɖr wz a lac v pṛkrmntcompitns wɖn ɖ guvnmnt. Britn hz nt tecn part in a YY jônt-pṛkrmnt scīm fr vnṭletrz, ẃć cd hv yzd ɖ blóc’s c’lectiv prć̣sñpǎr t incris ɖ stoc v vnṭletrz ɖt ɖ NHS hz axes t.

At frst, guvnmntsorsz clemd ɖ YC dsîdd nt t ptiṣpet bcz w r no longr a membr v ɖ YY, n ɖt ɖ YC wz “mcñ its ǒn ef̣ts” t sors xtra vnṭletrz. Ɖen w wr tld ɖt ɖ guvnmnt hd axdnṭli míst ɖ dedlîn; ɖs wz pt dǎn t “an iniśl cḿṇceśnprobḷm”. Bt Bruslz pubḷcli anǎnst planz fr a jônt pṛkrmntproses – wîdli rportd in ɖ pres – wīcs ago, n it hz md clir ɖt YC repriznttivz wr preznt at mītñz ẃr jônt pṛkrmnt wz dscust.

Ɖs oṿsît dz nʈñ t ale firz ɖt ɖ guvnmnt me hv pást p on ɖ oṗtyṇti t tec part in a YY iniṣ́tiv t pṛkr lîf-sevñ iqipmnt fr îdịlojicl rīznz. Morovr, xistñ vnṭletrmańfacćrrz in ɖ YC se ɖt, dspt cntactñ ɖ guvnmnt wɖ ofrz t ramp p ɖer pṛdux́n, ɖe hv hd litl rspons. Wn cumṗni, D’rect Axes, cntactd ɖ Dpartmnt fr Biznis aftr sorsñ 5,000 vnṭletrz bt hŕd nʈñ bac, n aftr a fy dez ɖ s’plîz wr d’rectd elsẃr. Anɖr s’playr, MEC Medicl, olso sd ɖ guvnmnt feld t rspond t its ofrz t xpand vnṭletrpṛdux́n.

Ɖr r olso iśuz ovr ɖ aveḷbiḷti v PPI. Last wīc it imrjd ɖt in 2016 ɖ Dpartmnt v Hlʈ rjctd xprt’dvîs t incris PPI stocpîlz agnst ɖ risc v an influenẓpandemic on ɖ grǎndz v cost. Ɖs dsiźn hz hd consiqnsz: medicl pṛfeśnlz cntiny t rport ɖt ɖr r stl śorṭjz v iqipmnt at ɖ fruntlîn. Sm NHS trusts hv bn ascñ scūlz t dnet saynsgoglz; n sm doctrz rport ɖt ɖe hv sorst n peid fr ɖer ǒn pṛtctiv mascs. Staf rmen cnsrnd ɖt ɖ rīzn ɖt ɖ YC advîs on pṛtctiv iqipmnt dvrjz fṛm ɖt v ɖ Wrld Hlʈ-Orġnîześn in sm instnsz z t prizrv liṃtd s’plîz, rɖr ɖn set ǎt bst practis.

Ɖs z ɖ sîn v a hlʈsistm ɖt hz bn pt undr xtrim preśr bî inadiqt levlz v fundñ sins 2010. A pandemic v ɖs sort wd olwz ples intolṛbl stren on ɖ NHS. Bt its impact wl b wrs az a rzult v a deced v unḍfundñ ɖt hz left hospitl bed-okpnsi rets reğlrli xidñ sef levlz; ilectiv oṗreśnz cansld dy t cpaṣti-iśuz; criticl-cer cpaṣti at lowr levlz ɖn most Yṛpiyn cuntriz; n a stafñcrîsis ɖt hz dplitd ɖ mral v fruntlîn staf.

A hlʈsistm drivn t ɖ abṣlut limits v its cpaṣti wl inevitbli b les rziłnt t ɖs sort v xtrordnri crîsis ɖn wn ɖt hz a litl briɖñrūm. Ɖr wl b uņesṣri n avôḍbl deʈs az a rzult. Tde, w śd aplōd ɖ xtrordnri ef̣ts biyñ md bî mni acrs guvnmnt t redi ɖ NHS fr ɖ sūnāmi ɖt z abt t hit it. Bt ɖ tîm wl cm t hold acǎntbl ɖoz poḷtiśnz hu wr so cīn t wīld uņesṣri bujitcuts az a baj v ɖer Cnsrvtiv cṛdnślz, ẃl peyñ litl hīd t ɖ consiqnsz v ɖer ax́nz.

Instroduction to Ñspel

WILLIAM GEAR 1915-1997: THE PAINTER THAT BRITAIN FORGOT │ Towner, Eastbourne → 27 September 2015

William Gear working in studio at Towner Art Gallery, September 1962
William Gear working in studio at Towner Art Gallery, September 1962

GALLERYARTIST

“Trêsñ ɖ inflụns n pṛlific âtpt v a nâ ltl-noun pêntr”

Flora Thompson ARGUS 23 July 2015
Rachel Cooke OBSERVER 19 July 2015

South East

CARSTEN HÖLLER: DECISION │ Hayward, London → 6 September 2015

Isometric Slides

GALLERYARTIST

“Đ oʈntc Wili Wonca v cntmprri art”

Jesc Bunyard HUNGER TV 28 June 2015
Martin Gayford SPECTATOR 20 June 2015
Zoe Pilger INDEPENDENT 14 June 2015
Laura Cumming OBSERVER 14 June 2015
Rory Stott ARCH DAILY 10 June 2015
DEZEEN 9 June 2015
Rupert Hawksley TELEGRAPH 9 June 2015
Nick Compton WALLPAPER 9 June 2015
Adrian Searle GUARDIAN 8 June 2015
Alice Vincent TELEGRAPH 1 April 2015
Emily Gosling IT’S NICE THAT 31 March 2015
Freire Barnes TIME OUT
BBC RADIO 4
CULTURE WHISPER

London

SARAH LUCAS: TITS IN SPACE │ Whitworth, Manchester → 19 July 2015

Tits in Space, wallpaper, 2000, screenprint on paper
Tits in Space, wallpaper, 2000, screenprint on paper

GALLERYARTIST

“Dvrs n smtmz plêfl apiṛnsz, harbrñ a mas v impliceśnz abt jendrsterịtîps, wor, deʈ, n ɖ vri we w cnsym ɖ wrld arnd s”

Sarah Lucas with her wallpaper Tits in Space, 2000, at the Whitechapel Gallery, 2013. Photo: Tina Hillier
Sarah Lucas with her wallpaper Tits in Space, 2000, at the Whitechapel Gallery, 2013. Photo: Tina Hillier

Sarah Crompton OBSERVER 10 May 2015
Louisa Buck TELEGRAPH 8 May 2015
BBC 6 May 2015
Charlotte Higgins GUARDIAN 6 May 2015
Adrian Searle GUARDIAN 5 May 2015
Karen Wright INDEPENDENT 5 May 2015
Alastair Sooke TELEGRAPH 5 May 2015
Caroline Roux FINANCIAL TIMES 1 May 2015
Alastair Sooke TELEGRAPH 10 September 2013

North West

CORIN SWORN: MAX MARA ART PRIZE FOR WOMEN │ Whitechapel, London → 19 July 2015

Silent Sticks, winner of the Max Mara art prize for women. Photograph: Stephen White
Silent Sticks, winner of the Max Mara art prize for women. Photograph: Stephen White

GALLERYARTIST

“Đ insṭleśn fīćrz a dṛmatc stêjset wɖ props, costymz, sând n film: pformtv n ʈiatricl dvîsz, ẃć rtel an infms stori v dspśn n imposćr.”

A scene from Silent Sticks’s film. Photograph: Margaret Salmon

Imelda Barnard APOLLO MAGAZINE 8 June 2015
Anna McNay STUDIO INTERNATIONAL 2 June 2015
Tom Halbert UPCOMING 29 May 2015
Laura Cumming OBSERVER 24 May 2015


CONTEMPORARY ART DAILY 5 July 2014
Corin Sworn OBSERVER 2 February 2014
Nick Compton WALLPAPER 28 January 2014
Colin Perry FRIEZE March 2012

CANADIAN ART
CHISENHALE GALLERY
NATALIA HUG
OUTSET
RUSKIN SCHOOL OF ART

London

JON TONKS: EMPIRE │ Ffotogallery, Penarth → 18 July 2015

A Gather of Sheep, Long Island Farm, Falkland Islands

GALLERYARTIST

“Reznetñ wɖ a sens v Britiśṇs ẃć z rmarcbli recgnîzbl yt iṇscepbli strenj”

Guardian: "A couple on St Helena: 'Residents pose in their uniforms as if to emphasise their sense of belonging to Queen and country.' Photograph: Jon Tonks/Dewi Lewis"
Observer: “A couple on St Helena: ‘Residents pose in their uniforms as if to emphasise their sense of belonging to Queen and country.’ Photograph: Jon Tonks/Dewi Lewis”

BBC 6 March 2014
Sean O’Hagan OBSERVER 29 December 2013
Iain Sarjeant ANOTHER PLACE
GRAIN
HYMAN COLLECTION
LENS CULTURE

Wales

ALEXANDER McQUEEN: SAVAGE BEAUTY │ Victoria & Albert Museum, London → 2 August 2015

GALLERYARTIST

“I’m a ṛmantc scitṣfrenic.”


Christina Miller HUFFINGTON POST 15 April 2015
Suzy Menkes VOGUE 16 March 2015
Rachel Cooke OBSERVER 15 March 2015
Antonia Wilson CREATIVE REVIEW 13 March 2015
Afsun Qureshi FASHIONISTA 12 March 2015
DEZEEN 12 March 2015
Zoe Pilger INDEPENDENT 12 March 2015
Karen Dacre LONDON EVENING STANDARD 12 March 2015
Bernadette McNulty TELEGRAPH 12 March 2015
TIME OUT 5 March 2015
Jess Cartner-Morley GUARDIAN 10 February 2015

Continue reading ALEXANDER McQUEEN: SAVAGE BEAUTY │ Victoria & Albert Museum, London → 2 August 2015

KATRÍN SIGURÐARDÓTTIR: SUPRA TERRAM │ Parasol Unit, London → 8 August 2015

Sketch of 'Supra Terram' (detail
Sketch of ‘Supra Terram’ (detail)

GALLERYARTIST

“I’m olwz ʈncñ abt distns. Hymn lîf z a transfmeśn in scêl. W g fṛm biyñ sml t bg, at līst in most cêsz [lafs]. In mî wrc, scêl z a meṭfr fr memri n distns.”
(Obzrvr intvy)

 Kate Kellaway OBSERVER 14 June 2015

Observer: "Sigurdardóttir standing outside her installation, Supra Terram. Photograph: Katherine Anne Rose"
Observer: “Sigurdardóttir standing outside her installation, Supra Terram. Photograph: Katherine Anne Rose”

Continue reading KATRÍN SIGURÐARDÓTTIR: SUPRA TERRAM │ Parasol Unit, London → 8 August 2015

JASON BROOKS: ORIGINS │ Marlborough Contemporary, London → 18 July 2015

Origin I, 2015. Acrylic on canvas, 125 x 176 cm. Photo: Francis Ware
Origin I, 2015. Acrylic on canvas, 125 x 176 cm. Photo: Francis Ware

GALLERYARTIST

“It z a we v lcñ at arthistri ʈru ɖ îz v uɖrz hu hv lct at arthistri. On a vri simpl levl it afrmz ɖ cntinyd fêʈ ɖt pêntrz rten in ɖ mīdịm.”

Origin II (Test), 2015. Acrylic and graphite on paper, 76.5 x 57.5 cm. Photo: Francis Ware
Origin II (Test), 2015. Acrylic and graphite on paper, 76.5 x 57.5 cm. Photo: Francis Ware

Continue reading JASON BROOKS: ORIGINS │ Marlborough Contemporary, London → 18 July 2015

Y.Z. KAMI: PAINTINGS │ Gagosian Gallery, London → May 30, 2015

Y.Z. KAMI's studio, New York. Photo by Rob McKeever
Y.Z. KAMI’s studio, New York. Photo by Rob McKeever

GALLERY WEBSITE • ARTIST

Marina Vaizey ARTS DESK 14 April 2015
Laura Cumming OBSERVER 12 April 2015
Ben Luke LONDON EVENING STANDARD 10 April 2015
Gabriel Coxhead TIME OUT

Continue reading Y.Z. KAMI: PAINTINGS │ Gagosian Gallery, London → May 30, 2015