Tag Archives: parliament

In Ñspel: The Observer view on the toxic workplace that is Westminster

Multiple allegations of bullying have surfaced in relation to the former minister Gavin Williamson. Photograph: Dan Kitwood/Getty Images
Multipl aḷgeśnz v bŭliyñ hv srfist in rleśn t ɖ formr ministr Gavin Wiłmsn. Foṭgraf: Dan Citwŭd/Geti Iṃjz

Ɖ Obzrvr vy on ɖ toxic wrcples ɖt z Wsminstr

(Transcription of a Guardian editorial of 13 Nov. 2022)

Bŭliyñ z rîf in parḷmnt n MPz śd b ɖ last ppl t cndon it

Súnde 13 Nvmbr 2022

‘A  starc rmîndr v hǎ bad ʈñz yst t b” z hǎ Lora Cox dscrîbd parḷmnt in hr indipndnt rvy v bŭliyñ n haṛsmnt in Wsminstr. Ś faund evidns v a toxic wrcñculćr, wɖ sm MPz bhevñ in apōlñ wez t jūńr stāf.

Ɖt wz in 2018. Sins ɖen, an indipndnt inqîri hz faund ɖt Jon Brco, hu ẃl Comnz spīcr hd oṿol rsponsbiḷti fr parḷmntri culćr, wz a “sirịl bŭli” n a layr. It cncludd ɖt hiz conduct twdz stāf wz so apōlñ h wd hv bn sspndd fṛm ɖ Comnz hd h stl bn an MP. Alix Aḷn, ɖ formr indipndnt advîzr on miṇstirịl standdz, in 2020 faund ɖt ɖ formr homsecṛtri Priti Ptél hd bŭlid sivl srvnts. Aḷn lêtr rzînd ẃn ɖ ɖen prîm̦inistr, Boris Jonsn, dfndd hr n asrtd ś hd nt brocn ɖ miṇstirịl cod.

Ńmṛs aḷgeśnz v bŭliyñ hv srfist ɖs munʈ in rleśn t Gavin Wiłmsn: fṛm ɖ formr ćīf ẃip – t hūm h snt xplītiv-lêdn meṣjz – fṛm a fīmel parḷmntri colīg n fṛm a sivl srvnt hu hz akzd him, amñ uɖr ʈñz, v telñ him t “slit hiz ʈrot”. Ɖs wīcend, it hz imrjd ɖt sīńr sivl srvnts at ɖ Miṇstri v Justis wr ofrd ɖ oṗtyṇti t swić rǒlz t avôd wrcñ wɖ Doṃnic Rāb aftr Riśi Sūnac ri’pôntd him az justișecṛtri. N evidns hz bn sbmitd t yt anɖr parḷmntri bŭliyñ inqîri – ɖ ʈrd in jst fîv yirz – ɖt hîlîts ɖt in a srve v 600 stāf, a qortr sd ɖe hd xpirịnst or witnist bŭliyñ.

Mć hz bn ritn abt ẃ parḷmnt apirz so pmisiv t toxic bhevyr bî a mnoṛti v MPz. Ɖ Comnz hz bn lîcnd t 650 litl fīfdmz, ć wɖ a smōl grūp v stāf ansṛbl t a MP, ẃć mcs stāf rluctnt t cōl ǎt n rport bad bhevyr. Ɖ goṣpi culćr mīnz ɖe fir biyñ tard az “dificlt” f ɖe cmplen, mcñ it hard fr ɖm t gt jobz in ɖ fyćr. Ɖ culćr v lêt-nît wrcñ n soṣ́lîzñ cn wìcn ɖ bǎnḍriz btwn pṛfeśnl n prsnl rleśnśps.

MPz hv traid t adres ɖs bî istabliśñ an indipndnt cmplents-n-grīvns proses fr stāf hu hv xpirịnst bŭliyñ n haṛsmnt. Bt ɖr z a criticl factr ɖt hz nt ćenjd a bit in ɖ yirz sins Cox’z rvy. Culćr z set bî ɖoz wɖ pǎr at ɖ top v a wrcples. N ɖr r far tù mni ministrz n sīńr MPz hu mc xksz fr un’xptbl bhevyr bî ɖer p’liticl alîz.

Jonsn apôntd Cris Pinćr ćīf ẃip dspt biyñ md awer v forml cmplents ɖt alejd h sx̣́li haṛst tū men ẃl h wz a ministr at ɖ Foṛn Ofis. Sīńr Cnsrṿtiv MPz argyd ɖt ɖr wr “baḷnsñ rqîrmnts” ɖt mitgetd Ptél’z bŭliyñ bhevyr. Crispin Blunt MP dfndd formr parḷmnterịn Imran Ahmad Cān aftr h wz cnvictd v ćîld sx́l asōlt. Sūnac hd rportidli bn md awer ɖt ɖr wr sirịs aḷgeśnz abt Wiłmsn’z conduct.

It z nt jst a Cnsrṿtiv probḷm: ɖ sīńr Lebr MP Marġrit Becit in 2018 sd in rleśn t Brco’z bŭliyñ: “Ɖ consttyśnl fyćr v ɖs cuntri… trumps bad bhevyr.”

So loñ az sm parḷmnterịnz rmen hapi t trn ɖer fesz awe fṛm evidns v bŭliyñ n haṛsmnt, fr rīznz v p’liticl xpīdịns, nʈñ wl ćenj. Ɖ Hǎs v Comnz n Ẃîthōl wl cntiny t harbr bhevyr ɖt śd nvr b toḷretd in ɖ modn wrcples, wɖ teribl consiqnsz fr ɖ ppl hu wrc ɖr.

Instroduction to Ñspel

"House by the Railroad," Edward Hopper, 1925

In Ñspel │ The Guardian view on sexism in Westminster: this sleaze harms us all

Neil Parish stands to ask a question during prime minister’s questions in the Commons. Photograph: UK Parliament/Jessica Taylor/PA
Nìl Pariś standz t asc a qsćn jrñ prîm̦inistr’z qsćnz in ɖ Comnz. Foṭgraf: YC Parḷmnt/Jesica Teilr/PA

Ɖ Gardịn vy on sxizm in Wsminstr: ɖs slīz harmz s ol

(Transcription of an editorial published in the Guardian on Friday 29 April 2022)

Nìl Pariś, akzd v woćñ porn at wrc, jônz a loñ list v Tori MPz invstgetd fr sx́l msconduct

Frîde 29 Epril 2022

“Unls w enśur indivijlz r bròt t justis, nʈñ wl ćenj,” Cet Mōltbi rout in ɖ Gardịn in 2019. Ɖ lêtist coments abt mel colīgz’ “wonḍrñ handz” fṛm ɖ inṭnaśnl-tred secṛtri, Án-Mri Tṛvełn, cmbînd wɖ ɖ fact ɖt no fywr ɖn 56 MPz r undr invstgeśn ovr sx́l conduct, sjst ɖt nt onli hv ʈñz nt ćenjd fr ɖ betr sins Mz Mōltbi rezd hr ǒn cmplent in 2017, in sm rspcts ɖe me īvn hv got wrs.

Tru, sm MPz hv bn hld t acǎnt fr in’proprịt bhevyr. Demịn Grīn wz sact fṛm hiz pziśn az frst secṛtri v stet in 2017 aftr an invstgeśn faund ɖt h hd laid t parḷmnt abt pornogṛfi on hiz cmpytr. No dfiṇtiv cncluźn wz rīćt in rleśn t Mz Mōltbi’z clem ɖt h hd bhevd roñli twdz hr, olɖo hr acǎnt wz faund t b “plōẓbl”. In 2020 ɖ formr Cnsrṿtiv MP Ćarli Elfic wz sntnst t tū yirz in jel fr ʈri sx́l asōlts – tū v ɖm on a parḷmntri wrcr. Anɖr Cnsrṿtiv MP, Imran Aħmad Cān, wz ɖs munʈ faund gilti v sx̣́li asōltñ a 15-yir-old bô in 2008, ẃl ɖ Tori MP Devid Worbrtn hz hd ɖ ẃip rmuvd aftr aḷgeśnz imrjd v sx́l haṛsmnt n ccen ys. Lebr MP Liym Bŕn olso fesz sspnśn fṛm ɖ Comnz fr nonsx́l bŭliyñ v a mel stāfr.

Bt uɖrz cntiny t iscep puniśmnt, az ɖ Libṛl Deṃcrat Lord Lstr dd ẃn h rzînd fṛm ɖ Hǎs v Lordz in 2018 aftr pirz votd nt t sañśn him fr sx́l haṛsmnt. Tori MP Crispin Blunt rzînd fṛm hiz pziśn az ćer v an ol-parti LGBT+ rîts grūp ɖs munʈ, aftr biyñ criṭsîzd fr pubḷcli atacñ Aħmad Cān’z cnvix́n. Bt ɖ ẃip wz nt wɖdrwn. N Boris Jonsn’z ẃips sīmd rluctnt, iniṣ́li, t act agnst anɖr MP, Nìl Pariś, hu z alejd t hv bn sìn woćñ pornogṛfi at wrc bî tū colīgz. Instd, it wz sjstd ɖt it wz fr ɖz witṇsz t rport him t ɖ Indipndnt Cmplents n Grīvns Scīm set p folowñ #MiTù. On Frîde, it wz anǎnst ɖt Mr Pariś wd rport himslf, n ɖ ẃip wz sspndd.

Ɖt ɖz rports, ẃć includ Mz Tṛvełn seyñ ś wz wns “pind p agnst a wōl” bî a mel MP, śd cm jst a wīc aftr a hîli public atmt t hymiliet Lebr’z Anɉla Rênr fr crosñ hr legz, mcs ɖm ol ɖ mor dsmeyñ. N ɖr z a sns v rîzñ angr amñ fīmel MPz, bʈ abt ɖ sṗsific bhevyr on dsple in parḷmnt n ɖ culćr v impyṇti ɖt cntinyz t srǎnd MPz; n abt wîdr trendz, includñ ɖ incrisñ ys v pornogṛfi in public plesz, n smartfon-inebld haṛsmnt.

Stl, opṭmists pônt t ɖ fact ɖt wimin r nǎ mor lîcli ɖz dez t cmplen abt mel bhevyr ɖt wd prīvịsli hv bn toḷretd. N gvn evrʈñ w nǒ abt ɖ numbr v sx́l haṛsmnt n abys xpirịnsz ɖt g unriportd, it z dificlt t asrt wɖ confidns ɖt sx́l msconduct in parḷmnt hz bcm mor comn, or les, best on aṇcdotl evidns. Ẃt cn b stetd frmli z ɖt it z daṃjñ bʈ t poḷtics n t ssayti ẃn sīńr public figrz sć az MPz trīt wimin wɖ sć cntmt.

Lebr hz its ǒn dificltiz in ɖs eria. Ɖs munʈ a grūp v sīńr wimin in ɖ parti cōld fr an end t ɖ ys v conḟdnśiaḷti’grīmnts ẃn aḷgeśnz r md. Bt ɖ lêtist nyz abt Mr Pariś, folowñ Aħmad Cān’z cnvix́n, Mr Worbrtn’z sspnśn n ɖ scuriḷs atac on Mz Rênr, mīn ɖt Boris Jonsn’z parti hedz intu nxt wīc’s locl ilex́nz in a clǎd v slīz.

Instroduction to Ñspel

In Ñspel │ The Guardian view on the parliamentary session: a low, dishonest year

‘The readiness of many MPs, led by the prime minister, to ignore other rules seems undiminished.’ Photograph: UK Parliament/Jessica Taylor/PA
‘Ɖ redinis v mni MPz, léd bî ɖ prîm̦inistr, t ignor uɖr rūlz sīmz undiminiśt.’ Foṭgraf: YC Parḷmnt/Jesica Teilr/PE

Ɖ Gardịn vy on ɖ parḷmntri seśn: a lo, dsonist yir

(Transcription of an editorial published in the Guardian on Thursday 28 April 2022)

Wsminstr plúmd ny depʈs v scandl ovr ɖ past 12 munʈs. Bt ɖ cruwl n slapdaś lejsleśn it pást wz īvn wrs

Ʈrzde, 28 Epril 2022

At lunćtîm on Ʈrzde parḷmnt wz pṛrogd – līġli fr wns – bfr ɖ stet oṗnñ n Qīn’z spīć on 10 Me. So endd wn v ɖ lǒist, most dsonist n most dscredtbl parḷmntri seśnz v modn tîmz. It wz a seśn marct bî ɖ frst cnvix́n fr a criminl ofns bî a sitñ prîm̦inistr, bî ɖ reṿleśn ɖt ɖ ćanslr v ɖ xćecr’z wîf yzd non-Dóm taxsteṭs, n bî ɖ unraṿlñ v ɖ Cnsrṿtiv parti’z eʈicl sns az ministrz atmtd t sev an MP’z scin aftr h hd bn faund gilti v lobiyñ. It wz olso marct bî ɖ sntnsñ v a Lebr MP t a sspndd 10-wīc priznsntns fr haṛsmnt n ɖ cnvix́n v a Tori MP fr moḷsteśn.

Ɖ seśn hz culṃnetd in an xtrordnri wīc v scuriḷs scandlz ɖt sīm ol tù repriznttiv v ɖ dsrepytbl n emoṛl culćr xpozd bî ɖ aḷgeśnz v rīsnt dez. It wz rvild ɖs wīc ɖt 56 MPz – alejidli includñ guvnmnt n śado ministrz – hv bn rfŕd t ɖ Comnz oʈoṛtiz ovr iśuz v sx́l haṛsmnt n uɖr msconduct. On ɖ vri mornñ v proṛgeśn, a Tori MP wz iśùd wɖ a criminl ćarj v felñ t stop aftr an axidnt, n a formr Lebr ministr wz sspndd fr bŭliyñ. F evr ɖ cuntri wz wel rid v a parḷmntri seśn ɖen it wz śrli ɖs wn.

Grimli, ɖs wz olso a seśn in ẃć parḷmnt cntinyd t pas oʈoṛterịn n riax́nri lwz p untl ɖ last minit. Ɖs wīc, sevṛl mejr bilz ẃć hd bn bérli scrūṭnîzd in dītel in ɖ Comnz n hd bn sbjctd t multipl impruvmnts bî ɖ Hǎs v Lordz wr fîṇli scrabld intu lw az ɖ upr hǎs baud ɖ ni. Ɖz includ ɖ ilex́nzbil, ẃć intṛdysz ID ćecs on votrz n gvz ɖ guvnmnt mor oʈoṛti t cntrol ɖ prīvịsli indipndnt Ilectṛl Cmiśn, a muv dscrîbd ɖs wīc bî a formr lord ćīf justis az rpugnnt; ɖen ɖr wr ɖ p’līs, crîm, sntnsñ n corts bil, an oʈoṛterịn atmt t impoz nīdlis xtra cndiśnz on rîts v asmbli n protest, n ɖ jdiśl rvy n corts bil, dzînd t crb scrūṭni v ɖ lwflnis v guvnmnt ax́nz. Wɖ sm îṛni, ɖs pást intu lw jst az ɖ hî cort rūld ɖt ɖ guvnmnt’s Covid-ira cerhom-disćarj poḷsi, in ẃć mor ɖn 12,500 ppl daid, hd bn unlwfl.

Ɖ wevz v slapdaś n oṿmîti ny lwz pást in ɖs seśn n huridli cmplitd ɖs wīc dd nt end ɖr. Ɖe olso includ ɖ hlʈ n cer bil, ẃr a fy Cnsrṿtiv MPz rbeld t ɖ end, bt un’velñli, t trî t stop ɖ guvnmnt’s eḟt t scrap ɖ reğlr indipndnt asesmnt v NHS stafñnīdz. Anɖr ɖt wnt t ɖ wîr wz ɖ naṣ́naḷti n bordrz bil, ẃr pirz hv votd rpitidli t enśur ɖt ɖ lwz on asîḷmsīcrz in ɖ ny lejsleśn rmen in lîn wɖ ɖ Ynîtd Cñdm’z trīti obḷgeśnz twdz refyjīz; nvɖles, on Tyzde, Tori MPz votd t gt rid v ɖ clōz n pmit Britn t brīć its inṭnaśnl cmitmnts yt agn. It wz a crǎnñ dsgres on a loñ list v lejsḷtiv śem.

It me wel nt b ɖ last wn. Ɖr z no gaṛnti ɖt ɖ nxt parḷmntri seśn wl b difṛnt. Ɖ damij t public trust blīdz evr on. Ɖ leġsi v Partiget hz nt pleid ǎt yt; mć mor z t cm. Ɖ redinis v mni MPz, léd bî ɖ prîm̦inistr, t ignor uɖr rūlz sīmz undiminiśt. N ɖ test fr cruwl n sliṗri lejsḷtiv iṇveśn wl incris az ɖ guvnmnt’s popylaṛti slîdz frɖr – az it so rićli dzrvz t d, nt līst in nxt wīc’s locl ilex́nz.

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Obzrvr │ The Observer view on parliamentary standards

Geoffrey Cox leaves a Cabinet meeting at 10 Downing Street, London, in February 2020. Photograph: Stefan Rousseau/PA

Ɖ Obzrvr vy on parḷmnṭri standdz

(Transcription of an Observer article of 14 November 2021)

Az ɖ Jefri Cox afer pruvz it’s tîm t stop ɖs necid grīd in poḷtics

Sunde, 14 Nvmbr 2021

Ɖ  2008 xpnszscandl irevcbli damijd ɖ repyteśn v Britiś parḷmnterịnz. It wz onli evr a mnoṛti v MPz hu abyzd ɖ sistm, clemñ fr duchǎzz, motclirñ n proṗtireṇveśnz. Yt ɖ reṿleśnz ɖt a sgnificnt numbr milct ɖ xpnszsistm t gt ɖ most ɖe cd wɖn ɖ letr v ɖ rūlz, n ɖt a smōl hanfl brouc ɖ lw, s’mentd mni votrz’ vyz ɖt most MPz r prîmṛli motvetd bî slf-inṭrest.

Ɖt scandl śd hv bn a rīsetmomnt, rmîndñ MPz ɖt ɖ priṿlij v ɖer ofis rqîrz ɖm t uphold ɖ hîist standdz v integṛti n t mnten ɖ spirit, nt jst ɖ letr, v ɖ rūlz. Bt ẃl ɖr wr mni loñ-oṿdy impruvmnts md t ɖ rūlz arnd xpnsz, includñ ɖ crieśn v ɖ Indipndnt Parḷmntri Standdz Oʈoṛti n gretr levlz v trnspaṛnsi, ɖ reṿleśnz abt ɖ numbr v MPz hu r fnanṣ́li beṇfitñ az a rzult v ɖer ofis ʈru qsćṇbl arenjmnts śo ɖt mni dd nt lrn ɖ lésn v ɖ xpnszscandl.

Own Paṭsn’z igrījs brecñ v ɖ rūlz on lobiyñ – n Boris Jonsn’z boćt atmt t hlp him ived acǎntbiḷti – hz pevd ɖ we fr rnyd scrūṭni intu ẃt sm MPz stl rgard az l’jitiṃt wez t top p ɖer saḷriz. Ɖ formr atrni jenṛl Sr Jefri Cox hz md at līst £6m in adiśnl incm, includñ ʈru pracṭsñ az a loyr, sins 2005 n ɖs z olmst srtnli an unḍesṭmeśn. Sm v ɖt incm hz bn d’rîvd bî reprizntñ ɖ premịr v ɖ Britiś Vrjin Îḷndz in a Britiś guvnmnt invstgeśn intu c’rupśn in ɖ oṿsìz teritri; in a vidio, h apirz t hv dn sm v ɖs wrc fṛm ɖ parḷmntri istet, ẃć wd b agnst ɖ rūlz, bt ẃć h dnîz. H spent cnsidṛbl amǎnts v tîm awe fṛm parḷmnt, in ɖ Caṛbiyn, ẃl it wz sitñ, in ordr t d ɖs wrc jrñ ɖ pandemic n md ys v pandemic-rletd proxi-votñ rūlz t repriznt hiz cnstitẏnts ẃl absnt. Cox hz olso bn rentñ ǎt ɖ Lundn hom h bòt wɖ taxpeyr asistns, instd ćarjñ taxpeyrz mor ɖn £22,000 a yir fr ɖ rent on anɖr flat. Ɖs z an arenjmnt ɖt rmenz wɖn ɖ rūlz, ẃć alǎz MPz hu olrdi ǒn Lundn proṗtiz partli fundd bî taxpeyrz undr ɖ old xpnszsistm t act az landlordz ẃl ɖe rent ǎt uɖr proṗtiz.

It z nt jst Cox. Opn Dmocṛsi hz rportd ɖt ɖ Cnsrṿtiv MP Marc̣s Fíś hz a fnanśl inṭrest in a cumṗni ɖt selz cer inśuṛns n traid t amnd lejsleśn t alǎ ɖ guvnmnt t yz fundz rezd bî ɖ hlʈ n cer levi t criet caś insntivz fr inśuṛnspṛvîdrz. Loṛns Roḅtsn, anɖr Cnsrṿtiv MP, z peid £24,000 a yir – £200 an aur – bî ɖ Betñ n Gemñ Caunsl n hz yzd parḷmntri qsćnz t worn ministrz agnst intṛdysñ strongr gamḅlñ lwz. Uɖr MPz hv tecn lūcṛtiv prîṿt sectr cnsultnsicontracts: Sajid Javid ŕnd £150,000 a yir wrcñ fr JP Morgn bfr h wz apôntd hlʈsecṛtri; Andru Mićl rnz mor ɖn £180,000 a yir fr jst ovr 30 dez’ wrc advîzñ verịs prîṿt sectr bizṇsz; Jūłn Smiʈ ŕnd £144,000 a yir wrcñ fr ʈri cumṗniz includñ a hîdṛjndistṛbyśnz cumṗni. Mni mor MPz hv ŕnd tnz v ʈǎzndz fṛm ɖer wrc ǎtsd parḷmnt.

Ɖ arğmnts fr alawñ MPz t unḍtec lūcṛtiv wrc ǎtsd parḷmnt r slf-srvñ in ɖ xtrim. W r s’pozd t b’liv ɖt unls w alǎ bac-bnć MPz t suplimnt ɖer ańl saḷri v mor ɖn £81,000 wɖ adiśnl wrc, ɖs wl compṛmîz ɖ qoḷti v ǎr ilectd ofiślz.

Ɖr z an arğmnt fr peyñ MPz mor t brñ ɖer pe intu lîn wɖ uɖr vri sīńr public sectr jobz, gvn ɖer wrcñ aurz, ɖ nećr v ɖ job n ɖer rsponsbiḷtiz. Bt f public srvis in ɖ contxt v a jenṛs rḿṇreśnpacij z nt a sfiśntli motvetñ factr fr ppl t b a MP, ɖe śd nt b in parḷmnt. W d nt hír ɖ sem arğmnts in fevr v alawñ hedtīćrz or p’līșūṗintndnts t hold secnd jobz n fr gd rīzn. Alawñ MPz t mc lūcṛtiv sumz fṛm ǎtsd wrc opnz p ɖ risc v sirịs conflicts v inṭrest ɖt impid ɖer cpaṣti t repriznt ɖer cnstitẏnts. It incuṛjz ɖm t prîoṛtîz ɖ nīdz v ɖer claynts abv ɖoz v ɖer cnstitẏnts. Ɖ îdīa ɖt sm wd nt entr parḷmnt wɖt biyñ ebl t būst ɖer rnñz ignorz ɖ fact ɖt mni r onli ebl t cmand ɖz pziśnz n ɖs levl v compnseśn bcz ɖe r MPz.

Ɖ s’lūśn z simpl: at ɖ minimm, a cap śd b intṛdyst on ǎtsd rnñz, ẃć wd alǎ MPz t unḍtec a vri liṃtd amǎnt v moḍstli peid wrc. Rūlz on lobiyñ nīd t b mor tîtli inforst n ɖ sañśnz fr brecñ ɖoz rūlz incrist t enśur MPz ŕ on ɖ sîd v cōśn in trmz v tecñ on wrc ɖt cd pǒz a conflict v inṭrest.

Bt ɖ hyj unspocn probḷm z ɖt w hv a priṃinistr hu – far fṛm setñ an xampl – z wn v ɖ wrst culprits in parḷmnt in trmz v hiz lac v integṛti n proḅti. H hz bn invstgetd bî ɖ parḷmntri standdz cmiśnr mor ɖn eni uɖr MP in ɖ last ʈri yirz; tde, w rport freś reṿleśnz abt hiz rleśnśp wɖ Jenifr Arcŭri, huz cumṗni rsivd ʈǎzndz v pǎndz v public muni ẃl h wz mẹr v Lundn. H imbodiz ɖ daṃjñ culćr v intîtlmnt ɖt nīdz t b adrest. Ẃl h me ivnć̣li pe a prsnl p’liticl cost, ɖ c’rupśn v hiz premịrśp cntinyz t damij votrz’ trust in ɖ p’liticl sistm.

***

MOR ARTICLZ Fṛm Đ Gardịn

Instroduction to Ñspel