Tag Archives: rainforest

Fṛm Đ Gardịn │ Climate crisis: Amazon rainforest tipping point is looming, data shows

The scientists say Amazon dieback has been having ‘profound implications at a global scale’. Photograph: Morley Read/Alamy
Ɖ sayntists se Aṃzn dîbac hz bn hvñ ‘pṛfǎnd impḷceśnz at a globl scel’. Foṭgraf: Morli Rīd/Aḷmi

Clîṃtcrîsis: Aṃzn renforist tipñpônt z lūmñ, deta śoz

(Transcription of an article published in the Guardian on Monday 7 March 2022)

Anaḷsis v saṭlît obẓveśnz śo forist z luzñ stbiḷti wɖ ‘pṛfǎnd’ globl impḷceśnz

Damian Carrington

Demịn Carñtn, Invîrnmnt editr, Munde, 7 Marć 2022

Ɖ  Aṃzn z aproćñ a tipñpônt, deta śoz, aftr ẃć ɖ renforist wd b lost, wɖ “pṛfǎnd” impḷceśnz fr ɖ globl clîṃt n bîoḍvrṣti.

Cmpytrmodlz hv prīvịsli indcetd a mas dîbac v ɖ Aṃzn z poṣbl, bt ɖ ny anaḷsis z best on riyl-wrld saṭlît obẓveśnz ovr ɖ past ʈri decedz.

Novl sttisticl anaḷsis śoz ɖt mor ɖn 75% v ɖ untućt forist hz lost stbiḷti sins ɖ rli 2000z, mīnñ it tecs longr t rcuvr aftr drǎts n wîldfîrz.

Ɖ gretist los v stbiḷti z in eriaz closr t farmz, rodz n ŕbn eriaz n in rījnz ɖt r bcmñ drîr, sjstñ ɖt forist dstrux́n n globl hītñ r ɖ cōz. Ɖz factrz “me olrdi hv pśt ɖ Aṃzn clos t a criticl ʈreśhold v renforist dîbac”, ɖ sayntists cnclud.

Ɖ studi dz nt inebl a pridix́n v ẃn ɖ tipñpônt cd b rīćt. Bt ɖ rsrćrz wornd ɖt bî ɖ tîm ɖ triġrñ v ɖ tipñpônt cd b dtctd, it wd b tù lêt t stop it.

Wns trigrd, ɖ renforist wd trnsform t grasland ovr a fy decedz at most, rlisñ hyj amǎnts v carbn n axeḷretñ globl hītñ frɖr.

Tipñpônts on a planitri scel r amñ ɖ gretist firz v clîṃtsayntists, az ɖe r irivrsbl on hymn tîmscelz. In 2021, ɖ sem sttisticl tecnīc rvild wornñsînz v ɖ c’laps v ɖ Gulfstrīm n uɖr ci Atlantic cuṛnts, wɖ “an olmst cmplit los v stbiḷti ovr ɖ last snć̣ri”.

A śutdǎn v ɖz cuṛnts wd hv caṭstrofic consiqnsz arnd ɖ wrld, dsruptñ monsūnrenz n indenjrñ Antartic îs śīts.

Anɖr rīsnt studi śoud ɖt a sgnificnt part v ɖ Grīnḷnd îs śīt z on ɖ brinc v a tipñpônt, ẃć wd līd t 7 mītrz v sìlevl rîz ovr tîm.

“Mni rsrćrz hv ʈiyrîzd ɖt an Aṃzn tipñpônt cd b rīćt, bt ǎr studi pṛvîdz vîtl impiricl evidns ɖt w r aproćñ ɖt ʈreśhold,” sd Pṛf. Niklas Boers, at ɖ Tecnicl Yṇvrṣti v Ḿnic in Jrṃni.

“Siyñ sć a rziłnslos in obẓveśnz z wuriyñ. Ɖ Aṃzn renforist storz hyj amǎnts v carbn ɖt cd b rlist in ɖ ces v īvn parśl dîbac.”

The edge of the ice sheet in the north of Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Photograph: Hannibal Hanschke/Reuters
Ɖ éj v ɖ îs śīt in ɖ norʈ v Kangerlussuaq, Grīnḷnd. Foṭgraf: Hannibal Hanschke/Rôtrz

Ɖ sayntists sd Aṃzn dîbac hd “pṛfǎnd impḷceśnz at a globl scel”. Boers add: “Ɖ Aṃzn z defiṇtli wn v ɖ fastist v ɖz tipñ elimnts in ɖ clîṃtsistm.”

Ɖ rsrć, publiśt in ɖ jrnl Nećr Clîṃtćenj, xamind saṭlîtdeta on ɖ amǎnt v vejteśn in mor ɖn 6,000 gridsélz acrs ɖ untućt Aṃzn fṛm 1991 t 2016.

Ɖe faund ɖt in ɖ past 20 yirz eriaz impactd bî drǎts or fîrz tc sgnificntli longr t rcuvr ɖn bfr. Ɖs z a ci sîn v incrisñ instbiḷti bcz it śoz ɖ prosesz v resṭreśn r gtñ wìcr.

Drîr eriaz v ɖ forist lost mor stbiḷti ɖn wetr wnz. “Ɖs z alarmñ, az ɖ IPCĆ [Inṭguvnmntl Panl on Clîṃtćenj] modlz pṛjct an oṿol drayñ v ɖ Aṃzn rījn in rspons t globl wormñ,” Boers sd.

Eriaz closr t hymn dstrux́n v ɖ forist olso bcem mor unstebl. Triz r crūśl in pṛdysñ ren, so félñ ɖm t clir land fr bīf n soi pṛdux́n criets a viśs srcl v drîr cndiśnz n mor trīlos.

Anɖr studi in 2021, best on deta fṛm hundṛdz v smōl-plein flîts, śoud ɖ Aṃzn nǎ imits mor carbndîoxîd ɖn it abzorbz, mostli bcz v fîrz.

Bt Boers sd ɖ deta indcetd ɖt ɖ tipñpônt hz nt yt bn crost: “So ɖr’z hop.” Pṛf. Tim Lentn at Xitr Yṇvrṣti in ɖ YC, a co-oʈr v ɖ studi, sd: “It s’ports eḟts t rvrs dīfoṛsteśn n degṛdeśn v ɖ Aṃzn t gv it bac sm rziłns agnst ongwñ clîṃtćenj.”

Cris Jǒnz, at ɖ Met Ofis Hadli Sntr in ɖ YC, n nt part v ɖ studitīm, sd: “Ɖs rsrć adz cmpelñ evidns ɖt clîṃtćenj z a risc nǎ, n ɖt ɖz svir n irivrsbl impacts cd bcm a riaḷti. W hv a naro windo v oṗtyṇti t tec rjnt ax́n.

“Ɖ wuriyñ cncluźn [v ɖ studi] fits wɖ uɖr rīsnt rsrć on incrist trīmortaḷti, incrist fîrz, n rdyst rījnl carbn sncs. Ɖ IPCĆ rport ǎt last wīc asest ɖt riscs v larj scel snğlr ivnts, sć az Aṃzn dîbac, r nǎ closr ɖn evr.”

Bernardo Flores, at ɖ Fedṛl Yṇvrṣti v Santa Catarina in Bṛzil, sd: “Ɖ studi śoz ɖt olɖo ɖ forist me sīm fîn, wɖ its norml strucćr n bîoḍvrṣti, intrnl prosesz r olrdi ćenjñ, sîḷntli, rdysñ ɖ sistm’z cpaṣti t psist in ɖ loñ run. Ɖ aproć yzd z inṭrestñ bcz it rvilz rli-wornñ signlz v ɖz ćenjz.”

Flores’z rsrć rvild ɖt s’vānaz wr xpandñ at ɖ hart v ɖ Aṃzn bcz v wîldfîrz.

Ɖ guvnmnt v Bṛzil’z prezidnt, Jair Bolsonaro, hz bn harśli criṭsîzd fr incuṛjñ mor dīfoṛsteśn, ẃć sōrd bî 22% in ɖ yir t Nvmbr, ɖ hîist levl sins 2006.

Boers sd: “It’s riyli compḷcetd t se ẃt’s gwñ t b frst: rīćñ a tipñpônt bî [los v stbiḷti] v ɖ naćṛl vejteśnsistm, or jst ɖ bldozrz rīćñ ɖ forist.”

Instroduction to Ñspel

Fṛm Đ Gardịn │ Joe Biden’s billions won’t stop Bolsonaro destroying the Amazon rainforest

‘Jair Bolsonaro’s government has transformed Brazil into an environmental pariah, the world’s greatest destroyer of tropical forests.’ Photograph: Brasil2/Getty Images
‘Jair Bolsonaro’z guvnmnt hz trnsformd Bṛzil intu an invîrnmntl p’raia, ɖ wrld’z gretist dstroyr v tropicl forists.’ Foṭgraf: Brasil2/Geti Iṃjz

Jo Bîdn’z biłnz w’nt stop Bolsonaro dstroyñ ɖ Aṃzn renforist

(Transcription of a Guardian article of 22 April 2021)

Fundz ofrd t pswed Brazil’z ruiṇs guvnmnt t stop dīfoṛsteśn r mnt wel, bt badli msjujd

Marina Silva n Rubens Ricupero, formr Bṛziłn invîrnmntministrz, 22 Epril 2021

Az a canddet, Jo Bîdn bilt p ɖ wrld’z hops ẃn h cmitd ɖ YS t rījônñ ɖ Paris agrīmnt, cnfruntñ ɖ clîṃt dnaylizm v hiz oponnt n sigṇlñ ɖt h wz redi t trīt ɖ clîṃtcrîsis az a stṛtījic prîoṛti. So far, ɖt hop hz bcm srtnti – n rlif fr ɖoz v s hu r strîvñ t fînd strucćṛl n globl s’luśnz t ɖ crîsis.

Fr ɖ Bṛziłn guvnmnt, prizîdd ovr bî ɖ clîṃtćenj sceptic Jair Bolsonaro, ɖ promis t rījôn ɖ Paris acordz sǎndd lîc a ʈret, īvn mor so bcz it wz foloud bî a promis md jrñ wn v ɖ dbets t moḅlîz $20bn (£14bn) in inṭnaśnl fundz fr tropicl renforists – includñ fr Bṛzil – t stop ɖ dstrux́n v ɖ Aṃzn. Bolsonaro riactd bî cōlñ ɖ planz “cawd ʈrets”.

Last yir, Bîdn me nt hv bn fŭli awer v ɖ xtnt t ẃć ɖ cuṛnt Bṛziłn guvnmnt hz trnsformd Bṛzil intu an invîrnmntl p’raia, ɖ wrld’z gretist dstroyr v tropicl forists n ɖ fōrmost ʈret t ɖ planit’s olrdi pricerịs clîṃt eqlibrịm. Bî nǎ, az Bîdn’z clîṃt sumit gts undr we, h wl hv bn fŭli informd n rpitidli wornd v ɖ risc v mcñ dīlz ɖt cd streñʈn Bolsonaro’z guvnmnt n alǎ it t frɖr advans its dstructiv poḷsiz.

Stl, ɖ Bîdn admiṇstreśn, alñ wɖ ministrz fṛm Britn n Yṛp, hz in rīsnt wīcs bn ngośietñ a dīl wɖ ɖ Bṛziłn guvnmnt. Fr ol ɖ tōc v cawdli ʈrets, Bolsonaro’z invîrnmntministr, Ricardo Salles, z ascñ fr a yirli instōlmnt v $1bn – in rtrn fr ẃć, h sz, Bṛzil’z foristcliṛns wd b rdyst bî btwn 30% n 40%. Ɖr r cnsrnz ɖt sm v ɖz fundz cd b ćanld t ɖ vri landgrabrz hu r bhnd ɖ dstrux́n v ɖ Aṃzn.

Ǎr wornñ z best on ɖ folowñ fact: dīfoṛsteśn in ɖ Bṛziłn Aṃzn z nt ɖ rzult v a lac v muni, bt a consiqns v ɖ guvnmnt’s dlibṛt fełr v cer.

Rsivñ inṭnaśnl fundz t implimnt pṛtctiv meźrz n ɖ ssteṇbl ys v ɖ forist z a norml n nesṣri trnzax́n. Ɖ Aṃzn Fund z ɖ most seḷbretd xampl: it oṗretd wɖ Jrmn n Norwījn rzorsz untl rīsntli ẃn, t ɖ horr v ɖ wrld, it wz diactvetd bî ɖ Bṛziłn invîrnmntmiṇstri. Ɖ guvnmnt md ɖ dsiźn t discntiny ɖ fund, ẃć stl hd abt $500m in fyćr dneśnz, bcz it wontd t rstrict hǎ ɖ muni wz yzd.

Rdysñ grīnhǎs-gas imiśnz hz nvr bn a prîoṛti fr ɖ Bṛziłn guvnmnt. Tec its ǒn clîṃtfund, fṛm ẃć abt $100,000 wz ćanld intu saṇteśnmeźrz rɖr ɖn ɖ mitgeśn v naśnl carbn imiśnz. V cors, saṇteśn z isnśl t hlʈ n welbiyñ in ǎr sitiz, bt it z far fṛm a sgnificnt sors v imiśnz. Ɖ guvnmnt olso slaśt ɖ bujit v ɖ Insttyt v ɖ Invîrnmnt n Rnywbl Naćṛl Rzorsz (Ibama), ɖ dpartmnt wɖn ɖ invîrnmntmiṇstri rsponsbl fr moniṭrñ dīfoṛsteśn. In ɖ frst haf v 2019, £2.2m wz aḷcetd fr inspx́nz; last yir, ɖ figr wz £700,000.

Ẃt ɖ guvnmnt z misñ z nt caś, bt a cmitmnt t ɖ truʈ. It dnaid ɖ xistns v fîrz in ɖ Aṃzn az ɖ flemz wr brnñ. Bṛziłn nyz z sać̣retd wɖ scandlz ɖt śo psistnt guvnmnt ax́n t wìcn invîrnmntl bodiz, rol bac lejsleśn, n ignor inṭnaśnl agrīmnts. Tū yirz ago, it dsmist ɖ hed v ɖ INPE – ɖ Naśnl Insttyt v Spes Rsrć – fr ɖ simpl fact ɖt ɖ insttyśn hd cmpîld deta on ɖ rîz v dīfoṛsteśn. Last wīc, it dsmist ɖ hed v ɖ ofis v ɖ fedṛl p’līs, hu hd léd ɖ larjist invstgeśn intu ɖ ilīgl xtrax́n v wŭd in ɖ hisṭri v ɖ Aṃzn. It hz rplest xpirịnst sivl srvnts wɖ indivijlz wɖt eni foṛstri xṗtīz in sevṛl dpartmnts, n it intndz t ifctivli śut dǎn ICMBio, Bṛzil’z fōrmost insttyśn dedcetd t ɖ pṛtx́n v naćṛl rzrvz.

T rīć a biłn-dolr agrīmnt wɖ Bolsonaro’z guvnmnt at ɖs crūśl momnt wl onli streñʈn its rzolv: it wl b a būn fr ɖ farmrz n landgrabrz hu hv ilīġli okpaid public forists n indijṇs land n snd ɖ prisîsli oṗzit mesij t ɖt ẃć z nīdd in ɖs crūśl yir fr ɖ clîṃt.

***

• Marina Silva srvd az Bṛzil’z ministr fr ɖ invîrnmnt, 2003-8. Rubens Ricupero srvd az ministr fr ɖ invîrnmnt, 1993-4

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